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HER2 is a validated target in breast cancer therapy. Two drugs are currently approved for HER2-positive breast cancer: trastuzumab (Herceptin), introduced in 1998, and lapatinib (Tykerb), in 2007. Despite these advances, some patients progress through therapy and succumb to their disease. A variation on antibody-targeted therapy is utilization of antibodies(More)
Receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) and RIPK3 trigger pro-inflammatory cell death termed "necroptosis." Studies with RIPK3-deficient mice or the RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 suggest that necroptosis exacerbates pathology in many disease models. We engineered mice expressing catalytically inactive RIPK3 D161N or RIPK1 D138N to determine the need(More)
The concentrations of 14 elements were determined in scalp hair samples from control, autistic and autistic-like children. Significant differences were noted between normal males and females for calcium, magnesium and mercury. The autistic population had significantly lower levels of calcium, magnesium, copper, manganese and chromium and higher levels of(More)
Posttranslational modification of proteins with polyubiquitin occurs in diverse signaling pathways and is tightly regulated to ensure cellular homeostasis. Studies employing ubiquitin mutants suggest that the fate of polyubiquitinated proteins is determined by which lysine within ubiquitin is linked to the C terminus of an adjacent ubiquitin. We have(More)
Trastuzumab-DM1 (T-DM1) is a novel antibody–drug conjugate under investigation for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer. One challenge in oncologic drug development is determining the optimal dose and treatment schedule. A novel dose regimen-finding strategy was developed for T-DM1 using(More)
Erythropoietin (Epo)-responsive anemia is a debilitating complication of chronic renal failure and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that effects more than 150,000 Americans. Patients with Epo-responsive anemias are currently treated with repeated injections of recombinant human Epo. In the studies described in this report, we have examined the(More)
Inactivation of the TNFAIP3 gene, encoding the A20 protein, is associated with critical inflammatory diseases including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. However, the role of A20 in attenuating inflammatory signalling is unclear owing to paradoxical in vitro and in vivo findings. Here we utilize genetically engineered mice(More)
Association with albumin as a means to improve biodistribution and tumor deposition of a Fab was investigated using AB.Fab4D5, a bifunctional molecule derived from trastuzumab (HERCEPTIN) capable of binding albumin and tumor antigen HER2 (erbB2) simultaneously. AB.Fab4D5 was compared with trastuzumab and a trastuzumab-derived Fab (Fab4D5) for the ability to(More)
Necroptosis is a caspase-independent form of cell death that is triggered by activation of the receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase 3 (RIPK3) and phosphorylation of its pseudokinase substrate mixed lineage kinase-like (MLKL), which then translocates to membranes and promotes cell lysis. Activation of RIPK3 is regulated by the kinase RIPK1. Here we(More)