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There is increasing recognition that stochastic processes regulate highly predictable patterns of gene expression in developing organisms, but the implications of stochastic gene expression for understanding haploinsufficiency remain largely unexplored. We have used simulations of stochastic gene expression to illustrate that gene copy number and expression(More)
We present WebSOS, a novel overlay-based architecture that provides guaranteed access to a web server that is targeted by a denial of service (DoS) attack. Our approach exploits two key characteristics of the web environment: its design around a human-centric interface, and the extensibility inherent in many browsers through downloadable "applets." We(More)
We investigate the feasibility of using Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) for cryptographic processing by exploiting the ability for GPUs to simultaneously process large quantities of pixels to offload symmetric key encryption from the main processor. We demonstrate the use of GPUs for applying the key stream when using stream ciphers. We investigate the use(More)
— We present the WebSOS architecture, a mechanism for countering denial of service (DoS) attacks against web servers. WebSOS uses a combination of overlay networking, content-based routing, and aggressive packet filtering to guarantee access to a service that is targeted by a DoS attack. Our approach requires no modifications to servers or browsers, and(More)
We present WebSOS, a novel overlay-based architecture that provides guaranteed access to a web server that is targeted by a denial of service (DoS) attack. Our approach exploits two key characteristics of the web environment: its design around a human-centric interface , and the extensibility inherent in many browsers through downloadable " applets. " We(More)
We introduce the new concept of elastic block ciphers, symmetric-key encryption algorithms that (1) for a variable-size input do not expand the plaintext (i.e., do not require plaintext padding) and (2) adjust their computational load proportionally to the size increase. Contrary to stream ciphers, elastic block ciphers maintain the diffusion property and(More)
We analyze the security of elastic block ciphers against key-recovery attacks. An elastic version of a fixed-length block cipher is a variable-length block cipher that supports any block size in the range of one to two times the length of the original block. Our method for creating an elastic block cipher involves inserting the round function of the(More)