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With age, T-cell generation from the thymus is much reduced, yet a substantial naïve T-cell pool is maintained even in aged animals, suggesting that naïve T cells either persist longer or turn over faster to maintain T-cell homeostasis. We found that with age, naïve CD4 T cells became progressively longer-lived. Their longer lifespan did not depend on(More)
Although B cells produce cytokines it is not known whether B cells can differentiate into effector subsets that secrete polarized arrays of cytokines. We have identified two populations of "effector" B cells (Be1 and Be2) that produce distinct patterns of cytokines depending on the cytokine environment in which the cells were stimulated during their primary(More)
Whether memory T lymphocytes are derived directly from effector T cells or via a separately controlled pathway has long been debated. Here we present evidence that, after adoptive transfer, a large fraction of in vitro--derived effector CD4(+) T cells have the potential to become memory T cells and that this transition can occur without further division.(More)
Recent studies suggest that effector T cells generated by immune responses migrate to multiple non-lymphoid sites, even those without apparent expression of antigen or inflammation. To investigate the ability of distinct CD4(+) T lymphocyte subsets to enter and persist in non-lymphoid, noninflamed compartments, we examined the migration and persistence of(More)
Naive CD4 cells from aged mice respond inefficiently to Ag, but the factors that underlie the age-associated defects remain unclear. We have used two approaches to isolate recent thymic emigrants (RTE) in young and aged mice and have compared their capacity to respond to antigenic stimulation ex vivo. An in situ intrathymic CFSE injection labeled developing(More)
With age, peripheral naive CD4 T cells become both longer lived and functionally impaired and they express reduced levels of Bim, a proapoptotic Bcl family member. In this study, we show that reduced Bim expression by naive CD4 T cells intrinsically mediates their longer lifespan in the periphery. Moreover, using mixed bone marrow chimeras reconstituted(More)
Influenza causes >250,000 deaths annually in the industrialized world, and bacterial infections frequently cause secondary illnesses during influenza outbreaks, including pneumonia, bronchitis, sinusitis, and otitis media. In this study, we demonstrate that cross-reactive immunity to mismatched influenza strains can reduce susceptibility to secondary(More)
Immunomodulatory agents potentially represent a new class of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. Here, we demonstrate that prophylaxis with immunomodulatory cytosine-phosphate-guanidine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), a toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist, confers protection against Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague. The data establish that(More)
Pulmonary infection with the bacterium Yersinia pestis causes pneumonic plague, an often-fatal disease for which no vaccine is presently available. Antibody-mediated humoral immunity can protect mice against pulmonary Y. pestis infection, an experimental model of pneumonic plague. Little is known about the protective efficacy of cellular immunity. We(More)