Debra E. Rugowski

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Despite the important roles of both prolactin (PRL) and 17beta-estradiol (E2) in normal mammary development as well as in breast cancer, and coexpression of the estrogen receptor (ER) and PRL receptor in many mammary tumors, the interactions between PRL and E2 in breast cancer have not been well studied. The activating protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor,(More)
Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that increased prolactin (PRL) exposure raises the risk of invasive estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha)-positive breast cancer in women. However, the mechanism(s) whereby this occurs and the interactions with estrogen itself in this disease remain poorly understood. In order to investigate the role of ovarian hormones(More)
Tumors that express estrogen receptor alpha (ERα+) comprise 75% of breast cancers in women. While treatments directed against this receptor have successfully lowered mortality rates, many primary tumors initially or later exhibit resistance. The paucity of murine models of this "luminal" tumor subtype has hindered studies of factors that promote their(More)
The essential role of prolactin (PRL) in normal mammary gland growth and differentiation has implicated this hormone in the development and progression of breast cancer. Although Stat5 is the best-characterized mediator of PRL signals, PRL also activates multiple other signals, whose roles in normal and pathologic processes are not well understood. We have(More)
The importance of prolactin (PRL) in physiological proliferation and differentiation of the mammary gland, together with high levels of PRL receptors in breast tumors, the association of circulating PRL with incidence of breast cancer, and the recognition of locally produced PRL, point to the need for greater understanding of PRL actions in mammary disease.(More)
Resistance of estrogen receptor positive (ERα+) breast cancers to antiestrogens is a major factor in the mortality of this disease. Although activation of ERα in the absence of ligand is hypothesized to contribute to this resistance, the potency of this mechanism in vivo is not clear. Epidemiologic studies have strongly linked prolactin (PRL) to both(More)
Epidemiological and experimental studies have revealed an important role for prolactin (PRL) in breast cancer. Cyclin D1 is a major downstream target of PRL in lobuloalveolar development during pregnancy and is amplified and/or overexpressed in many breast carcinomas. To examine the importance of cyclin D1 in PRL-induced pathogenesis, we generated(More)
TP53 is one of the most commonly mutated genes in cancer. In breast cancer, it is mutated in about 40% of primary clinical tumors and is associated with poor survival. The mammotrophic hormone, prolactin (PRL), and/or its receptor are also expressed in many breast cancers, and accumulating epidemiologic data link PRL to breast cancer development and(More)
The development and progression of estrogen receptor alpha positive (ERα+) breast cancer has been linked epidemiologically to prolactin. However, activation of the canonical mediator of prolactin, STAT5, is associated with more differentiated cancers and better prognoses. We have reported that density/stiffness of the extracellular matrix potently modulates(More)
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