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Achalasia is dominated by injury to inhibitory nerves. As intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-IM) are proposed to form functional units with nitrergic nerves, their fate in achalasia may be critically important. We studied the relationship between loss of nitrergic nerves and injury to ICC-IM in patients with achalasia and determined associations(More)
Substance P (SP), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and serotonin inputs onto laryngeal motoneurons (LMNs) are known to exist, but the distribution of their terminals in the caudal nucleus ambiguus (NA), remains unclear. Using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, we assessed simultaneously the distribution of SP, TH, serotonin and synaptophysin(More)
We have systematically analysed the ultrastructure of the early secretory pathway in the Trichoderma reesei hyphae in the wild-type QM6a, cellulase-overexpressing Rut-C30 strain and a Rut-C30 transformant BV47 overexpressing a recombinant BiP1-VenusYFP fusion protein with an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal. The hyphae were studied after 24 h of(More)
We investigated the distribution and density of perivascular nerves in human mesenteric arteries and veins and their responses to noradrenaline (NA), ATP and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in control (non-inflamed) and inflamed bowel, using confocal microscopy and in vitro pharmacology. The density of innervation at the adventitial-medial border of arteries and(More)
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