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The usual method of staining polyacrylamide gel electropherograms for superoxide dismutase activity utilizes a photochemical flux of O2- to reduce nitroblue tetrazolium. Superoxide dismutases intercept O2-, preventing formazan production and thus causing achromatic bands. In the presence of H2O2, catalases also yield achromatic bands during this staining(More)
Shelf-stable milk could benefit from sensory quality improvement. Current methods of heating cause flavor and nutrient degradation through exposure to overheated thermal exchange surfaces. Rapid heating with microwaves followed by sudden cooling could reduce or eliminate this problem. The objectives for this study were focused on designing and implementing(More)
Bioactive peptides have been identified within the amino acid sequences of native milk proteins. Hydrolytic reactions, such as those catalyzed by digestive enzymes, result in their release. These peptides directly influence numerous biological processes evoking behavioral, gastrointestinal, hormonal, immunological, neurological, and nutritional responses.(More)
Mammary fluids, colostrum and milk, deliver nature's first host defense systems upon birth, and these essential liquids are critical for survival of the neonate. The identification and characterization of anti-infectious proteins were among the early scientific discoveries and this group of proteins has long been recognized for promoting health benefits in(More)
Xanthine oxidase, isolated from bovine milk, exhibited an A280:A450 nm ratio of 5.0. This ratio is reported to be indicative of highly purified enzyme preparations. Serum from a rabbit hyperimmunized against this enzyme fraction exhibited two precipitation lines when incubated with the protein in agarose double diffusion plates. Serum albumin,(More)
The relationship between superoxide dismutase (SOD) and chilling injury was examined in chilling-sensitive and chilling-resistant strains of Chlorella ellipsoidea. The sensitive strain contained less SOD than the resistant strain. Moreover, all of the SOD in the sensitive strain was the H2O2-sensitive, iron-containing SOD, whereas most of the SOD in the(More)
The roles of sulfhydryl/disulfide interactions and acid/pepsin hydrolysis on β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) thermal aggregation at acidic pH 3.35 and 2 were studied using rheology, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Western blotting. Pepsin promoted additional hydrolysis compared to the(More)
Modification of the functionality of whey proteins using microbial transglutaminase (TGase) has been the subject of recent studies. However, changes in rheological properties of whey proteins as affected by extensive cross-linking with TGase are not well studied. The factors affecting cross-linking of whey protein isolate (WPI) using both soluble and(More)
The functionality of whey dispersions, prepared with a modified whey protein concentrate (mWPC) ingredient, was significantly altered after cross-linking with microbial transglutaminase (TGase) upon pH adjustment to 8. Test TGase-mWPC solutions, pH 8, gelled faster than control mWPC dispersions, as measured in real time; whereas, the gelling temperature of(More)
Transglutaminase promotes protein cross-linking reactions through an acyl transferase mechanism involving protein-bound glutaminyl residues and primary amines including the epsilon-amino group of lysine residues in soy, myosin, gluten, oat globulin, casein, and whey. Herein, we present a first report of exogenous transglutaminase catalysis of several peanut(More)