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Synchronized low-frequency BOLD fluctuations are observed in dissociable large-scale, distributed networks with functional specialization. Two such networks, referred to as the task-positive network (TPN) and the task-negative network (TNN) because they tend to be active or inactive during cognitively demanding tasks, show reproducible anticorrelation of(More)
OBJECTIVE Estrogen therapy (ET) seems to differentially effect cognitive processes in younger versus older postmenopausal women, suggesting a window of opportunity when ET is most beneficial. Cognitive improvement in younger postmenopausal women has been attributed to ET's influence on hot flushes and sleep, but empiric examination of the mediating role of(More)
Difficulty monitoring and inhibiting impulsive behaviors has been reported in marijuana (MJ) smokers; neuroimaging studies, which examined frontal systems in chronic MJ smokers, have reported alterations during inhibitory tasks. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides a quantitative estimate of white matter integrity at the microstructural level. We applied(More)
Functional imaging studies have shown reduced activity within the default mode network during attention-demanding tasks. The network circuitry underlying this suppression remains unclear. Proposed hypotheses include an attentional switch in the right anterior insula and reciprocal inhibition between the default mode and attention control networks. We(More)
The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) region is uniquely situated at the intersection of visual, somatosensory, and auditory association cortices, ideally located for processing of multisensory attention. We examined the internal architecture of the IPS region and its connectivity to other regions in the dorsal attention and cinguloinsular networks using maximal(More)
In autism, physiological indices of selective attention have been shown to be abnormal even in situations where behaviour is intact. This divergence between behaviour and physiology suggests the action of some compensatory process of attention, one which may hold clues to the aetiology of autism's characteristic cognitive phenotype. Six subjects with autism(More)
INTRODUCTION There are limited data regarding the impact of marijuana (MJ) on cortical development during adolescence. Adolescence is a period of substantial brain maturation and cortical thickness abnormalities may be indicative of disruptions of normal cortical development. This investigation applied cortical-surface based techniques to compare cortical(More)
In an attempt to clarify regional signal intensity changes, which may accompany the performance of the Stroop Color-Word task, healthy subjects were imaged using the fMRI BOLD technique while performing a modified version of the task. Both the AAA and VOA subdivisions of the anterior cingulate cortex were significantly activated during the interference(More)
BACKGROUND Although a number of investigations have reported cognitive deficits in patients with bipolar disorder, relatively few have focused on the relationship between these impairments and clinical outcome. METHODS In order to help clarify the pattern of and extent to which cognitive deficits are present at the onset of illness and their relationship(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether structural differences in the insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), two critical areas of the "salience network," co-exist in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with healthy controls (HC). In addition we aimed to determine if structural changes within these regions(More)