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This theoretical integration of social psychology's main cognitive and affective constructs was shaped by 3 influences: (a) recent widespread interest in automatic and implicit cognition, (b) development of the Implicit Association Test (IAT; A. G. Greenwald, D. E. McGhee, & J. L. K. Schwartz. 1998), and (c) social psychology's consistency theories of the(More)
The revised scoring procedures described in this report are hereby made freely available for use in research investigations. SPSS syntax for computing IAT measures using the improved algorithm can be obtained at improved scoring procedures described in this report (patent pending) should not be used for commercial applications nor should they or the(More)
vides a flexible measure of the automatic associations underlying implicit prejudice. Results of three experiments showed strong evidence of implicit prejudices based on religious ethnicity (Jewish vs. Christian), age (young vs. old), and nationality (American vs. Soviet). Subjects responded more rapidly to tasks that obliged association of ingroup tokens(More)
Two studies investigated the use of the Implicit Association Test (IAT; A. G. Greenwald, D. E. McGhee, & J. L. K. Schwartz, 1998) to study age differences in implicit social cognitions. Study I collected IAT (implicit) and explicit (self-report) measures of age attitudes, age identity, and self-esteem from young, young-old, and old-old participants. Study 2(More)
This theoretical integration of social psychology's main cognitive and affective constructs was shaped by 3 influences: (a) recent widespread interest in automatic and implicit cognition, (b) development of (c) social psychology's consistency theories of the 1950s, especially F. Heider's (1958) balance theory. The balanced identity design is introduced as a(More)
After spending 45 s studying the names of 4 members of a hypothetical group, subjects showed both implicit liking and implicit identification with the group. These effects of studying names were much larger than the mere exposure (R. B. Zajonc, 1968) effects of either 6 (Experiment 2) or 10 (Experiment 3) extra exposures to each name. This implicit(More)
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