Deborah M. Holstein

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Mitochondrial alteration has been long proposed to play a major role in tumorigenesis. Recently, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been found in a variety of cancer cells. In this study, we examined the contribution of mtDNA mutation and mitochondrial dysfunction in tumorigenesis first using human cell lines carrying a frame-shift at NADH(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a Ca(2+) storing organelle that plays a critical role in the synthesis, folding and post-translational modifications of many proteins. The ER enters into a condition of stress when the load of newly synthesized proteins exceeds its folding and processing capacity. This activates a signal transduction pathway called the(More)
BACKGROUND The accumulation of misfolded proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers a cellular process known as the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). One of the earliest responses is the attenuation of protein translation. Little is known about the role that Ca2+ mobilization plays in the early UPR. Work from our group has shown that cytosolic(More)
Treatments to improve the neurological outcome of edema and cerebral ischemic stroke are severely limited. Here, we present the first in vivo single cell images of cortical mouse astrocytes documenting the impact of single vessel photothrombosis on cytotoxic edema and cerebral infarcts. The volume of astrocytes expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)(More)
Age-related changes in astrocytes that could potentially affect neuroprotection have been largely unexplored. To test whether astrocyte function was diminished during the aging process, we examined cell growth, Ca2+ signaling, mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi) and neuroprotection of NGF-differentiated PC12 cells. We observed that cell growth was(More)
The Ca(2+)-dependent phosphatase, calcineurin (CN) is thought to play a detrimental role in damaged neurons; however, its role in astrocytes is unclear. In cultured astrocytes, CNβ expression increased after treatment with a sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor, thapsigargin, and with oxygen and glucose deprivation, an in vitro model of(More)
Glia-based neuroprotection strategies are emerging as promising new avenues to treat brain damage. We previously reported that activation of the glial-specific purinergic receptor, P2Y(1)R, reduces both astrocyte swelling and brain infarcts in a photothrombotic mouse model of stroke. These restorative effects were dependent on astrocyte mitochondrial(More)
INTRODUCTION Both cerulein and cholecystokinin activate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (ERK1/2) in vivo and in isolated pancreatic acini. AIMS AND METHODOLOGY ERK1/2 in pancreas homogenates was activated in rats rendered pancreatitic by subcutaneous injections of cerulein (5 microg/kg per hour). To determine if blocking ERK1/2 activity might(More)
The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) recently has been shown to activate MAP kinase (ERK1/2) in various cell types as well as in heterologous expression systems. In this study we show that the CaR agonist NPS R-467 (1 microm), which does not activate the CaR by itself, robustly activates ERK1/2 in the presence of a low concentration of Ca(2+) (0.5 mm CaCl(2))(More)
Glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) is a unique antioxidant enzyme that repairs oxidative damage to biomembranes. In this study, we examined the effects of Gpx4 on the release of various apoptogenic proteins from mitochondria using transgenic mice overexpressing Gpx4 [Tg(GPX4(+/0))] and mice deficient in Gpx4 (Gpx4+/- mice). Diquat exposure triggered apoptosis(More)