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Yersinia pestis causes pneumonic plague, a disease characterized by inflammation, necrosis and rapid bacterial growth which together cause acute lung congestion and lethality. The bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS) injects 7 effector proteins into host cells and their combined activities are necessary to establish infection. Y. pestis infection of(More)
Molecular studies of bacterial virulence are enhanced by expression of recombinant DNA during infection to allow complementation of mutants and expression of reporter proteins in vivo. For highly pathogenic bacteria, such as Yersinia pestis, these studies are currently limited because deliberate introduction of antibiotic resistance is restricted to those(More)
BACKGROUND The chemokine receptor, CCR5, has been identified as an essential co-receptor with CD4, which permits entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into mammalian cells. This receptor may also mediate leukocyte and parenchymal responses to injury by virtue of its binding to locally released chemokines such as RANTES, MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta(More)
Airway epithelial cells are the first line of defense against invading microbes, and they protect themselves through the production of carbohydrate and protein matrices concentrated with antimicrobial products. In addition, they act as sentinels, expressing pattern recognition receptors that become activated upon sensing bacterial products and stimulate(More)
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) has been increasingly reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected humans over the past decade. The pathogenesis is unknown. We prospectively analyzed the renal pathology and function of 27 pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina), infected intravenously with a virulent HIV-2 strain, HIV-2(287), in addition to that(More)
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disorder of the CNS that usually causes hemiparesis or hemianopsia. Dementia occurs in combination with other neurologic abnormalities. We report a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV)-infected man whose only manifestation of proven PML was dementia that was clinically(More)
Type I interferons (IFN-I) broadly control innate immunity and are typically transcriptionally induced by Interferon Regulatory Factors (IRFs) following stimulation of pattern recognition receptors within the cytosol of host cells. For bacterial infection, IFN-I signaling can result in widely variant responses, in some cases contributing to the pathogenesis(More)
Ischemic stroke in the young is uncommon, but we currently evaluate at least one young stroke patient at our institutions each week. We undertook this chart review of strokes in patients between the ages of 6 months and 39 years to review all conditions associated with, and thus possibly contributory to, the stroke. We also compare younger and older age(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the safety of silk as an embolic agent for preoperative embolization of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) by assessing the histopathologic changes and hemorrhagic complications associated with its use. METHODS Histopathologic specimens, medical records, and radiologic records of 73 patients with AVMs embolized with silk(More)
Lymphoid tissues are the primary target during the initial virus dissemination that occurs in HIV-1-infected individuals. Recent advances in antiretroviral therapy and techniques to monitor virus load in humans have demonstrated that the early stages of viral infection and host response are major determinants of the outcome of individual infections.(More)