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The RD1 genomic region is present in virulent strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), missing from the vaccine strain M. bovis BCG, and its importance to virulence has been established experimentally. Based on in silico analysis, it has been suggested that RD1 may encode a novel secretion system, but the mechanism by which this region affects virulence(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of chronic hepatitis, affecting approximately 2% of the world's population. The immune mechanisms responsible for the highly variable natural history in a given individual are unknown. We used a multiparameter flow cytometric technique to functionally and phenotypically characterize HCV-specific effector T cells(More)
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) establishes persistent lifelong infections and replicates slowly. To withstand robust immunity, HCMV utilizes numerous immune evasion strategies. The HCMV gene cassette encoding US2 to US11 encodes four homologous glycoproteins, US2, US3, US6, and US11, that inhibit the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) antigen(More)
The interaction of leukocytes with endothelial cells is intrinsic to the process of leukocyte extravasation, whether during the entry of blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes into sites of acute and chronic inflammation, or during the homing of lymphocytes to lymphoid organs. A lymphocyte surface glycoprotein, defined by monoclonal antibody(More)
Development of a subunit vaccine for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is likely to be dependent on the identification of T cell antigens that induce strong proliferation and interferon gamma production from healthy purified protein derivative (PPD)(+) donors. We have developed a sensitive and rapid technique for screening an Mtb genomic library expressed in(More)
Our previous studies in volunteers immunized with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) have suggested an important role for CD8+ T cells in host defense. In this study we describe a novel subset of nonclassical human HLA-E-restricted S. Typhi-specific CD8+ T cells derived from PBMC of Ty21a typhoid vaccinees. CD3+CD8+CD4-CD56- T cells effectively(More)
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a unique T cell subset in mammals. They are present at high frequencies at mucosal tissue sites and have an intrinsic capacity to respond to microbial infections. The semi-invariant antigen recognition receptor of MAIT cells detects the non-polymorphic antigen-presenting molecule major histocompatibility(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The testing and treatment of children at risk for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection represents an important public health priority in the United States. Until recently, diagnosis has relied upon the tuberculin skin test (TST). New interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) offer improvements over TST, but these tests have not been studied(More)
Control of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) requires Th1-type immunity, of which CD8+ T cells play a unique role. High frequency Mtb-reactive CD8+ T cells are present in both Mtb-infected and uninfected humans. We show by limiting dilution analysis that nonclassically restricted CD8+ T cells are universally present, but predominate in(More)
Control of tuberculosis worldwide depends on our understanding of human immune mechanisms, which combat the infection. Acquired T cell responses are critical for host defense against microbial pathogens, yet the mechanisms by which they act in humans remain unclear. We report that T cells, by the release of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), induce autophagy, phagosomal(More)