Deborah Lewinsohn

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The RD1 genomic region is present in virulent strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), missing from the vaccine strain M. bovis BCG, and its importance to virulence has been established experimentally. Based on in silico analysis, it has been suggested that RD1 may encode a novel secretion system, but the mechanism by which this region affects virulence(More)
Control of tuberculosis worldwide depends on our understanding of human immune mechanisms, which combat the infection. Acquired T cell responses are critical for host defense against microbial pathogens, yet the mechanisms by which they act in humans remain unclear. We report that T cells, by the release of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), induce autophagy, phagosomal(More)
Control of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) requires Th1-type immunity, of which CD8+ T cells play a unique role. High frequency Mtb-reactive CD8+ T cells are present in both Mtb-infected and uninfected humans. We show by limiting dilution analysis that nonclassically restricted CD8+ T cells are universally present, but predominate in(More)
CD8(+) T cells are essential for host defense to intracellular bacterial pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), Salmonella species, and Listeria monocytogenes, yet the repertoire and dominance pattern of human CD8 antigens for these pathogens remains poorly characterized. Tuberculosis (TB), the disease caused by Mtb infection, remains one of(More)
BACKGROUND High expression of CD161 on CD8+ T cells is associated with a population of cells thought to play a role in mucosal immunity. We wished to investigate this subset in an HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) endemic African setting. METHODS A flow cytometric approach was used to assess the frequency and phenotype of CD161++CD8+ T cells. 80(More)
Previous studies in mice and humans have suggested an important role for CD8+ T cells in host defense to Mtb. Recently, we have described human, Mtb-specific CD8+ cells that are neither HLA-A, B, or C nor group 1 CD1 restricted, and have found that these cells comprise the dominant CD8+ T cell response in latently infected individuals. In this report, three(More)
Acute infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) rarely is identified, and hence, the determinants of spontaneous resolution versus chronicity remain incompletely understood. In particular, because of the retrospective nature and unknown source of infection in most human studies, direct evidence for emergence of escape mutations in immunodominant major(More)
Control of tuberculosis worldwide depends on our understanding of human immune mechanisms, which combat the infection. Acquired T cell responses are critical for host defense against microbial pathogens, yet the mechanisms by which they act in humans remain unclear. We report that T cells, by the release of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), induce autophagy, phagosomal(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The testing and treatment of children at risk for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection represents an important public health priority in the United States. Until recently, diagnosis has relied upon the tuberculin skin test (TST). New interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) offer improvements over TST, but these tests have not been studied(More)
Our previous studies in volunteers immunized with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) have suggested an important role for CD8+ T cells in host defense. In this study we describe a novel subset of nonclassical human HLA-E-restricted S. Typhi-specific CD8+ T cells derived from PBMC of Ty21a typhoid vaccinees. CD3+CD8+CD4-CD56- T cells effectively(More)