Muscles undergoing denervation demonstrate a variety of imaging appearances in the various stages. It is incumbent on the radiologist to be aware of these changes so as not to interpret these muscles as harboring a tumor or being involved by an inflammatory process. Knowledge of cranial nerve anatomy and the muscles they innervate enables identification of… (More)
The thoracic inlet is the junction between the neck and the chest. A number of neural structures traverse this region. A knowledge of the location of these various neural structures and their relationship to one another is important when interpreting cross-sectional images of this region. This article will review the normal anatomy of the major neural… (More)
Sonographic images of the vocal cords were obtained in 41 healthy human subjects using a phased array realtime ultrasound scanner. The thyroid cartilage provides the acoustic window for sonographic visualization of the vocal cords. The false vocal cords appear as hyperechoic structures, while the true vocal cords are seen as hypoechoic structures. The… (More)
Horner's syndrome (HS) occurs when there is interruption of the oculosympathetic pathway (OSP). This article reviews the anatomy of the OSP and clinical findings associated with lesions located at various positions along this pathway. The imaging findings of lesions associated with HS at various levels of the OSP, classified as preganglionic HS (first- and… (More)
Commonly conflated with sleepiness, fatigue is a distinct multidimensional condition with physical and mental effects. Fatigue in health care providers and any secondary effects on patient care are an important societal concern. As medical image interpretation is highly dependent on visual input, visual fatigue is of particular interest to radiologists.… (More)
CT and MRI are the primary imaging modalities used to evaluate the various regions of the head and neck. From the preceding discussion one can see clearly that the choice of the appropriate imaging modality depends on a number of variables. There is no indisputable "winner" under all anatomical or pathological circumstances. The advantages and disadvantages… (More)
Part 2 of this article concerns itself with alterations in the normal anatomy (described in part 1) by various disease processes. Ten patients are described with various facial masses. The role of computed tomography in the clinical workup of these patients is stressed.