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Breastfeeding rates among African-American women lag behind all other ethnic groups. National data show that only 45% of African-American women reported ever breastfeeding compared to 66 and 68% of Hispanic and white women, respectively. Of African-American women who do choose to breastfeed, duration is short, with many discontinuing in the first days after(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate the proportions of US infants who were breastfed exclusively for 6 months, according to characteristics of the mother, child, and household environment, and to compare associations between those characteristics and exclusive breastfeeding with associations between those characteristics and breastfeeding initiation. METHODS Data were(More)
OBJECTIVES We sought to determine the impact of sociodemographic and behavioral factors and state legislation on breastfeeding initiation (child ever fed breastmilk) and duration. METHODS We used data from a nationally representative study of children aged 6 to 71 months (N = 33 121); we calculated unadjusted and adjusted state estimates for breastfeeding(More)
This paper discusses the problems arising from the presence of system bias in ocean data assimilation taking examples from the ECMWF ocean reanalysis used for seasonal forecasting. The examples illustrate how in a biased system, the non-stationary nature of the observing system is a handicap for the reliable representation of climate variability. It is also(More)
OBJECTIVES Previous research has shown substantial racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in US breastfeeding initiation and duration rates. However, the role of immigrant status in understanding such disparities has not been well studied. In this study we examined the extent to which breastfeeding initiation and duration varied by immigrant status(More)
OBJECTIVES Primary prevention of iron deficiency requires adequate iron intake. Although recommendations exist to promote adequate intake of iron among infants through iron-rich foods and iron supplements, few studies have examined adherence to these recommendations. Our objectives were to describe the consumption of iron-rich foods, oral iron supplements,(More)
BACKGROUND Breastfeeding is the reference against which alternative infant feeding models must be measured with regard to growth, development and other health outcomes. Although not a systematic review, this report provides an update for dental professionals, including an overview of general and oral health-related benefits associated with breastfeeding. (More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have shown that breastfeeding is associated with reductions in the risk of common infections among infants; however, whether breastfeeding confers longer term protection is inconclusive. METHODS We linked data from the 2005-2007 IFPS II (Infant Feeding Practices Study II) and follow-up data collected when the children were 6(More)
PURPOSE Concerns have been raised regarding possible racial-ethnic disparities in 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (pH1N1) illness severity and health consequences for U.S. minority populations. METHODS Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Emerging Infections Program(More)
OBJECTIVES We examined the associations of breastfeeding initiation and duration with language and motor skill development in a nationally representative sample of US children aged 10 to 71 months. METHODS Using cross-sectional data on 22399 children from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, we examined relationships between breastfeeding(More)