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Autism is characterized by restricted, repetitive behaviors and impairment in socialization and communication. Although no neuropathologic substrate underlying autism has been found, the findings of brain overgrowth via neuroimaging studies and increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in neuropathologic and blood studies favor an(More)
BACKGROUND In this article, we present our experience with such operations performed under local anaesthesia. METHODS From January 1997 to November 2007, there were 387 patients operated on for asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Patient data were retrospectively evaluated. Thirty-day neurological morbidity and mortality from six different subgroups were(More)
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in verbal communication, social interactions, and the presence of repetitive, stereotyped and compulsive behaviors. Excessive early brain growth is found commonly in some patients and may contribute to disease phenotype. Reports of increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)(More)
Hydrogen proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is only beginning to be studied in autistic individuals. We report an association between hydrogen proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy choline/creatine ratios and severity of autism as measured by the Children's Autistic Rating Scale (Pearson r = .657, P = .04) in 10 autistic children. Hydrogen proton(More)
A 15-year-old girl with features of Henoch-Schönlein purpura and brain infarct had a transient IgA antiphosphatidylethanolamine antibody (aPE) in her serum and CSF that disappeared 5 months after presentation. Serum aPE is known to be associated with thrombotic events. The authors found no aPE in the CSF of two control individuals or in the serum of two(More)
The present review highlights an association between autism, Alzheimer disease (AD), and fragile X syndrome (FXS). We propose a conceptual framework involving the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), Aβ precursor protein (APP), and fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) based on experimental evidence. The anabolic (growth-promoting) effect of the secreted α form of(More)
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody has been associated with a severe stereotypic form of subacute encephalitis, often found in women with ovarian teratoma. Reported here is the diagnosis of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis in a 5-year-old girl who presented with subacute encephalopathy and movement disorder without evidence of(More)
Absolute pitch is the ability to identify the pitch of an isolated tone. We report on a 4-year-old boy with autism and absolute pitch, one of the youngest reported in the literature. Absolute pitch is thought to be attributable to a single gene, transmitted in an autosomal-dominant fashion. The association of absolute pitch with autism raises the(More)
A genetic defect causing autism and epilepsy involving the contactin associated protein-like 2 gene (CNTNAP2) has been discovered in a selected cohort of Amish children. These children were found to have focal seizures and autistic regression. Surgical biopsy of the anterior temporal lobe of two such children revealed cortical dysplasia and a single(More)
Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong developmental disorder characterized by impairment in socialization and communication. Neuroimaging research has shown abnormalities in the frontal lobes, limbic systems, and cerebella of individuals with ASD. Recently, abnormal developmental trajectories of brain growth have been reported, with increases in(More)