Deborah J Soetenga

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OBJECTIVE To develop and test the validity and reliability of the Withdrawal Assessment Tool-1 for monitoring opioid and benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms in pediatric patients. DESIGN Prospective psychometric evaluation. Pediatric critical care nurses assessed eligible at-risk pediatric patients for the presence of 19 withdrawal symptoms and rated the(More)
Critically ill children are treated with opioid medication in an attempt to decrease stress and alleviate pain during prolonged pediatric intensive care. This treatment plan places children at risk for opioid dependency. Once dependent, children need to be weaned or risk development of a withdrawal syndrome on abrupt cessation of medication. We enrolled(More)
PURPOSE This study tested the reliability and validity of a pain scale that was developed at University of Wisconsin Children's Hospital for the preverbal child (less than 3 years old) and the nonverbal child (children who cognitively were not able to communicate a pain rating on traditional pain scales). METHOD Content validity was established by expert(More)
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