Deborah J. Lenschow

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The lysosomal degradation pathway of autophagy has a crucial role in defence against infection, neurodegenerative disorders, cancer and ageing. Accordingly, agents that induce autophagy may have broad therapeutic applications. One approach to developing such agents is to exploit autophagy manipulation strategies used by microbial virulence factors. Here we(More)
Antigen-specific T cell activation depends on T cell receptor-ligand interaction and costimulatory signals generated when accessory molecules bind to their ligands, such as CD28 to the B7 (also called BB1) molecule. A soluble fusion protein of human CTLA-4 (a protein homologous to CD28) and the immunoglobulin (lg) G1 Fc region (CTLA4lg) binds to human and(More)
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is thought to be an immunologically mediated disease resulting in the complete destruction of the insulin-producing islets of Langerhans. It has become increasingly clear that autoreactive T cells play a major role in the development and progression of this disease. In this study, we examined the role of the(More)
Autophagy is an important survival pathway and can participate in the host response to infection. Studying Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), the causative agent of a major epidemic in India, Southeast Asia, and southern Europe, we reveal a novel mechanism by which autophagy limits cell death and mortality after infection. We use biochemical studies and single cell(More)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging alphavirus that has caused significant disease in the Indian Ocean region since 2005. During this outbreak, in addition to fever, rash and arthritis, severe cases of CHIKV infection have been observed in infants. Challenging the notion that the innate immune response in infants is immature or defective, we(More)
PLP139-151-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the SJL mouse is a Th1-mediated inflammatory demyelinating disease characterized by a relapsing-remitting clinical course (R-EAE). Clinical relapses are mediated by T cells specific for a non-cross reactive secondary PLP epitope (PLP178-191) induced by epitope spreading. We have previously(More)
It has been recognized that macroautophagy constitutes an important survival mechanism that allows both the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and the regulation of programmed cell death pathways (e.g., apoptosis). Although several pathogens have been described to induce autophagy, the prosurvival function of this process in infectious models remains(More)
The type I interferon system plays a critical role in limiting the spread of viral infection. Viruses induce the production of interferon (IFN), which after binding to the IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR), and triggering of the JAK/STAT signaling cascade, results in the induction of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). These ISGs function to inhibit viral(More)
ISG15 is an interferon (IFN)-α/β-induced ubiquitin-like protein. It exists as a free molecule, intracellularly and extracellularly, and conjugated to target proteins. Studies in mice have demonstrated a role for Isg15 in antiviral immunity. By contrast, human ISG15 was shown to have critical immune functions, but not in antiviral immunity. Namely, free(More)
In this study, we have identified a unique mechanism in which human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) protein pUL79 acts as an elongation factor to direct cellular RNA polymerase II for viral transcription during late times of infection. We and others previously reported that pUL79 and its homologues are required for viral transcript accumulation after viral DNA(More)