Deborah J Lenschow

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T cells play a central role in the initiation and regulation of the immune response to antigen. Both the engagement of the TCR with MHC/Ag and a second signal are needed for the complete activation of the T cell. The CD28/B7 receptor/ligand system is one of the dominant costimulatory pathways. Interruption of this signaling pathway with CD28 antagonists not(More)
CD28/B7 costimulation has been implicated in the induction and progression of autoimmune diseases. Experimentally induced models of autoimmunity have been shown to be prevented or reduced in intensity in mice rendered deficient for CD28 costimulation. In sharp contrast, spontaneous diabetes is exacerbated in both B7-1/B7-2-deficient and CD28-deficient NOD(More)
CD28 and CTLA-4 are related glycoproteins found on T cells. Ligation of CD28 following antigen receptor engagement provides a costimulatory signal required for T cell activation. Anti-CTLA-4 antibodies were generated to examine the role of the CTLA-4 receptor on murine T cells. Expression of CTLA-4 as a homodimer is up-regulated 2-3 days following T cell(More)
Type I interferons (IFNs) play an essential role in the host response to viral infection through the induction of numerous IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), including important antiviral molecules such as PKR, RNase L, Mx, and iNOS. Yet, additional antiviral ISGs likely exist. IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is a ubiquitin homolog that is rapidly up-regulated(More)
The lysosomal degradation pathway of autophagy has a crucial role in defence against infection, neurodegenerative disorders, cancer and ageing. Accordingly, agents that induce autophagy may have broad therapeutic applications. One approach to developing such agents is to exploit autophagy manipulation strategies used by microbial virulence factors. Here we(More)
Though the interferon-inducible protein ISG15 was one of the first ubiquitin-like modifiers to be discovered, much remains unknown about the identity of proteins conjugated to ISG15 or the biologic consequences of modification. To gain a better understanding of the cellular pathways affected by ISG15, we identified proteins targeted for ISGylation using a(More)
Ubiquitin (Ub) and interferon-stimulated gene product 15 (ISG15) reversibly conjugate to proteins and mediate important innate antiviral responses. The ovarian tumor (OTU) domain represents a superfamily of predicted proteases found in eukaryotic, bacterial, and viral proteins, some of which have Ub-deconjugating activity. We show that the OTU(More)
OBJECTIVE Granulomatous inflammation is a typical feature of Takayasu arteritis (TA), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is important in the formation of granulomas. In this study, we assessed therapy with anti-TNF agents in patients with TA that was not controlled by glucocorticoid therapy or other immunosuppressants. METHODS We conducted an open-label(More)
CD28 ligation delivers a costimulatory signal important in T cell activation. This study demonstrates that the disruption of the CD28/B7 pathway early in the nonobese diabetic mouse strain, using CD28-/- and CTLA41g transgenic mice, promoted the development and progression of spontaneous autoimmune diabetes. Functional analyses of T cells isolated from(More)
ISG15 functions as a critical antiviral molecule against influenza virus, with infection inducing both the conjugation of ISG15 to target proteins and production of free ISG15. Here, we report that mice lacking the ISG15 E1 enzyme UbE1L fail to form ISG15 conjugates. Both UbE1L(-/-) and ISG15(-/-) mice display increased susceptibility to influenza B virus(More)