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Like leptin, the pancreatic hormone insulin is an important adiposity signal to the brain. We report that the hypothalamic melanocortin system is an important target of the actions of insulin to regulate food intake and body weight. Hypothalamic neurons expressing insulin receptors were found to coexpress the melanocortin precursor molecule(More)
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexin-A are orexigenic peptidergic neurotransmitters produced primarily in the lateral hypothalamus. Because two other hypothalamic peptides, neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide, increase food intake by a mechanism that depends on activation of opioid receptors, we assessed whether MCH or orexin-A also elicits(More)
There is now considerable consensus that the adipocyte hormone leptin and the pancreatic hormone insulin are important regulators of food intake and energy balance. Leptin and insulin fulfill many of the requirements to be putative adiposity signals to the brain. Plasma leptin and insulin levels are positively correlated with body weight and with adipose(More)
Obesity and its associated health disorders and costs are increasing. Males and females differ in terms of how and where body fat is stored, the hormones they secrete in proportion to their fat, and the way their brains respond to signals that regulate body fat. Fat accumulation in the intra-abdominal adipose depot is associated with the risk for developing(More)
Estrogens regulate body weight and reproduction primarily through actions on estrogen receptor-α (ERα). However, ERα-expressing cells mediating these effects are not identified. We demonstrate that brain-specific deletion of ERα in female mice causes abdominal obesity stemming from both hyperphagia and hypometabolism. Hypometabolism and abdominal obesity,(More)
The lateral hypothalamus (LH) has a critical role in the control of feeding and drinking. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is an orexigenic peptidergic neurotransmitter produced primarily in the LH, and agouti-related protein (AgRP) is an orexigenic peptidergic neurotransmitter produced exclusively in the arcuate (ARC), an area that innervates the LH. We(More)
Recent studies indicate that decreased central dopamine is associated with diet-induced obesity in humans and in animal models. In the current study, the authors assessed the hypothesis that diet-induced obesity reduces mesolimbic dopamine function. Specifically, the authors compared dopamine turnover in this region between rats fed a high-fat diet and(More)
Recent research and theory point to the possibility that hippocampal-dependent learning and memory mechanisms translate neurohormonal signals of energy balance into adaptive behavioral outcomes involved with the inhibition of food intake. The present paper summarizes these findings and ideas and considers the hypothesis that excessive caloric intake and(More)
Estrogen regulation of the male skeleton was first clearly demonstrated in patients with aromatase deficiency or a mutation in the ERα gene. Estrogen action on the skeleton is thought to occur mainly through the action of the nuclear receptors ERα and ERβ. Recently, in vitro studies have shown that the G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 is a functional(More)
BACKGROUND Overconsumption of calorically dense foods contributes substantially to the current obesity epidemic. The adiposity hormone leptin has been identified as a potential modulator of reward-induced feeding. The current study asked whether leptin signaling within the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and midbrain is involved in effort-based responding for(More)