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Autism, a severe disorder of development, is difficult to detect in very young children. However, children who receive early intervention have improved long-term prognoses. The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), consisting of 23 yes/no items, was used to screen 1,293 children. Of the 58 children given a diagnostic/developmental evaluation,(More)
BACKGROUND Social impairments are central to the syndrome of autism. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been implicated in the regulation of social behavior in animals but has not yet been examined in autistic subjects. METHODS To determine whether autistic children have abnormalities in OT, midday plasma samples from 29 autistic and 30 age-matched normal(More)
BACKGROUND Oxytocin (OT) is synthesized as a prohormone that is sequentially processed to peptides. These peptides are the bioactive amidated form (OT) and the C-terminal extended peptides, OT-Gly, OT-Gly-Lys and OT-Gly-Lys-Arg, which are designated together as OT-X. As an extension of our previous study finding decreased plasma OT in autism, studies were(More)
Executive functioning was investigated in 34 children (24 boys and 10 girls) with developmental language disorder (DLD) and 21 children (18 boys and 3 girls) with high-functioning autistic disorder (HAD) matched on Full Scale IQ, Nonverbal IQ, age (mean age 9 year, 1 month), and SES. The DLD group had a Verbal IQ that was 10 points higher than the HAD(More)
Autism is a developmental disorder marked by impairments in socialization, communication, and perseverative behavior and is associated with cognitive impairment and deficits in adaptive functioning. Research has consistently demonstrated that children with autism have deficits in adaptive functioning more severe than their cognitive deficits. This study(More)
We screened 183 autistic males for the fra(X) and found 24 (13.1%) to be positive. Adding the subjects of this study to those of 11 other surveys, of which 6 were positive and 5 were negative, a total of 614 autistic males have been screened. Overall 47 (7.7%) were positive. Based on this estimate and the prevalence of autism and fra(X), we estimate that(More)
Affect comprehension was studied in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) and normal children matched for mental age. Three matching tasks were used: matching objects (a nonsocial control task), matching faces, and matching affects. The three tasks were developed to be of equal difficulty for normal children. Children were also tested for(More)
This study compared four systems for the diagnosis of autism (DSM-III, DSM-III-R, DSM-IV, and ICD-10) with two empirically derived taxa of autism, and with three social subgroups of autism (Aloof, Passive, and Active-but-Odd) in 194 preschool children with salient social impairment. There were significant behavior and IQ differences between autistic and(More)
Normative data from 113 participants, and cross-validation data from 49 additional participants, are presented for the Biber Cognitive Estimation Test (BCET), a 20-item test with five estimation questions in each of four categories: time/duration, quantity, weight, and distance. In Study 1, the range of normal answers is provided for each item, and a(More)
The authors evaluated the relative contributions of speed, memory, and visual scanning to Digit Symbol score in a sample of young adults (N = 87). Speed (Symbol Copy) explained 35% of Digit Symbol variance; only half of this was attributable to graphomotor speed (Name Printing), implying a role for perceptual speed. Visual-scanning tests (e.g., Symbol Scan)(More)