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Classic studies of amnesia led to characterizations of hippocampal function emphasizing involvement in long-term memory rather than short-term (or working) memory. In two experiments, we show that when memory for relations among co-occurring items is tested, hippocampal amnesia results in a deficit even at very short lags. Hence, we find evidence for(More)
Previous neuropsychological findings have implicated medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures in retaining object-location relations over the course of short delays, but MTL effects have not always been reported in neuroimaging investigations with similar short-term memory requirements. Here, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to test(More)
Previous work has shown that eye movement behaviour is affected by previous experience, such that alterations in viewing patterns can be observed to previously viewed compared to novel displays. The current work addresses the extent to which such effects of memory on eye movement behaviour are obligatory; that is, we examined whether prior experience could(More)
Little is known about the mechanisms by which memory for relations is accomplished, or about the time course of the critical processes. Here, eye movement measures were used to examine the time course of subjects' access to and use of relational memory. In four experiments, participants studied faces superimposed on scenic backgrounds and were tested with(More)
Although there is widespread agreement that the hippocampus is critical for explicit episodic memory retrieval, it is controversial whether this region can also support indirect expressions of relational memory when explicit retrieval fails. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with concurrent indirect, eye-movement-based memory(More)
The study of implicit perception - perception in the absence of awareness - has a long history. Decades of behavioural work have identified crucial theoretical and methodological issues that must be considered when evaluating claims of implicit perception. Neuroimaging methods provide an important new avenue for illuminating our understanding of perception(More)
Results of several investigations indicate that eye movements can reveal memory for elements of previous experience. These effects of memory on eye movement behavior can emerge very rapidly, changing the efficiency and even the nature of visual processing without appealing to verbal reports and without requiring conscious recollection. This aspect of eye(More)
Classic findings from the neuropsychological literature invariably indicated that performances on tests of memory that can be accomplished without conscious awareness were largely spared in amnesia, while those that required conscious retrieval (e.g., via recognition or recall) of information learned in the very same sessions was devastatingly impaired.(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with schizophrenia may be impaired at remembering interitem and item-context relationships (relational memory), even when memory for items is intact. Here, we applied the novel approach of using eye movements to assess integrity of item and relational memory in schizophrenia. This method does not rely on introspection and may be more(More)
In two experiments, we examined whether observers' eye movements distinguish studied faces from highly similar novel faces. Participants' eye movements were monitored while they viewed three-face displays. Target-present displays contained a studied face and two morphed faces that were visually similar to it; target-absent displays contained three morphed(More)