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Do we recognize common objects by parts, or as wholes? Holistic recognition would be efficient, yet people detect a grating of light and dark stripes by parts. Thus efficiency falls as the number of stripes increases, in inverse proportion, as explained by probability summation among independent feature detectors. It is inefficient to detect correlated(More)
The uptake of a sugar across the boundary membrane is a primary event in the nutrition of most cells, but the hydrophobic nature of the transport proteins involved makes them difficult to characterize. Their amino-acid sequences can, however, be determined by cloning and sequencing the corresponding gene (or complementary DNA). We have determined the(More)
We have explored pattern recognition by examining how observers identify letters. We expected 26-way classification of familiar forms to challenge the popular notion of independent feature detection (" probability summation "), but find instead that this theory parsimoniously accounts for our results. We measured the contrast required for identification of(More)
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