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Ehrlichia chaffeensis is a tick transmitted pathogen responsible for the disease human monocytic ehrlichiosis. Research to elucidate gene function in rickettsial pathogens is limited by the lack of genetic manipulation methods. Mutational analysis was performed, targeting to specific and random insertion sites within the bacterium's genome. Targeted(More)
We assayed the ability of cat fleas to become infected with Bartonella henselae, using an artificial feeding device. Fleas fed a concentration of 1 x 10(5) cfu/ml in blood were examined using immunofluorescent antibody assay and polymerase chain reaction. Bacteria were present in the gut at 3 h, and persisted up to 9 d after infection. Qualitatively, the(More)
Ticks continue to be a threat to animal and human health, and new and novel control strategies are needed for ticks and tick-borne pathogens. The characterization of the tick-pathogen interface and the tick immune response to microbial infections is fundamental toward the formulation of new control strategies for ticks and the pathogens they transmit. Our(More)
ELB rickettsiae from cat flea homogenates were recovered in tissue culture cells following sequential passage through laboratory rats and the yolk sacs of embryonated chicken eggs. Seven days after inoculation of ELB from the infected yolk sacs, Vero cells and L929 cells were observed to contain intracellular bacteria as demonstrated by Diff Quik and(More)
Amblyomma americanum (L.) ticks continue to emerge as disease vectors in many areas of the United States. Tick macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was first identified in A. americanum females and has been demonstrated to inhibit macrophage movement to the same extent as human MIF. This study was conducted to further characterize and elucidate the(More)
The antibody responses of human and animal hosts were studied to determine the utility of antibody against recombinant tick calreticulin (rTC), a cDNA-derived protein isolated from salivary glands of Amblyomma americanum L., as a biologic marker of tick exposure. Rabbits fed upon by either A. americanum or Dermacentor variabilis Say developed significant(More)
The antibody responses of subjects who presented with a definite Ixodes scapularis (Say) tick bite were measured to determine the utility of the antibody response against recombinant tick calreticulin (rTC) as a biologic marker of tick exposure. Subjects bitten by I. scapularis evidenced an increase in anti-rTC antibody levels between visit 1 and visit 2(More)
Salivary gland antigens involved in host resistance to tick feeding by Amblyomma americanum (lone star tick) have been identified. Gland extracts from unfed and partially fed 12-, 48-, 72-, 96-, and 120-hr females and their corresponding midgut tissues were analyzed by immunoblotting with sera from naturally immune and hyperimmune sheep and rabbits.(More)
Studying tick feeding and digestion, we discovered in a cDNA library from partially fed Amblyomma americanum ticks the first known arthropod homologue of a human cytokine, the pro-inflammatory Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF). The tick origin of the MIF cDNA clone was confirmed by sequencing a genomic fragment that contained the full-length tick(More)