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An enriched environment is associated with hippocampal plasticity, including improved cognitive performance and increased neurogenesis. Here, we show that hippocampal expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is increased by both an enriched environment and performance in a spatial maze. Hippocampal gene transfer of VEGF in adult rats resulted(More)
The mammalian brain has a high degree of plasticity, with dentate granule cell neurogenesis and glial proliferation stimulated by an enriched environment combining both complex inanimate and social stimulation. Moreover, rodents exposed to an enriched environment both before and after a cerebral insult show improved cognitive performance. One of the most(More)
BACKGROUND Dopaminergic neuronal loss in Parkinson's disease leads to changes in the circuitry of the basal ganglia, such as decreased inhibitory GABAergic input to the subthalamic nucleus. We aimed to measure the safety, tolerability, and potential efficacy of transfer of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) gene with adeno-associated virus (AAV) into the(More)
Scopolamine-treated rats are commonly used as a psychopharmacological model of memory dysfunction and have been extensively studied to establish the effectiveness of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Scopolamine is a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist that induces memory deficits in young subjects similar to(More)
Alzheimer's disease may be due to a deficiency in neurotrophin protein or receptor expression. Consistent with this hypothesis, a reduction in BDNF mRNA expression has been observed in human post-mortem Alzheimer's disease hippocampi. To further investigate this observation, we examined whether the alteration in BDNF expression also occurred at the protein(More)
cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is important for the formation and facilitation of long-term memory in diverse models. However, to our knowledge, involvement of CREB in age-associated memory impairment has not been reported. Here, we use a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector to obtain stable transgenic expression of CREB as well as the(More)
Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors have become the primary delivery agent for somatic gene transfer into the central nervous system (CNS). To date, AAV-mediated gene delivery to the CNS is based on serotypes 1-9, with efficient gene transfer to neurons only-selective and widespread transduction of glial cells have not been observed. Recently, additional(More)
Aspartoacylase metabolizes N-acetylaspartic acid to produce L-aspartate and acetate. An aspartoacylase deficiency in humans is responsible for Canavan disease, a lethal autosomal recessive leukodystrophy. The role of aspartoacylase in the mammalian brain is unclear. Here we have generated and characterized a highly specific polyclonal antibody against(More)
High doses of pilocarpine are known to produce prolonged seizure activity in rats. Previous studies show that pretreatment with LiCl will sensitize rats to the convulsant effects of pilocarpine. Here we report that the anti-epileptogenic and anticonvulsant drug MK-801 (dizocilpine) paradoxically also sensitizes rats to pilocarpine induced limbic seizures(More)
The expression of trk receptors in postmortem normal, Huntington's disease and Alzheimer's disease human brains was investigated using immunohistochemistry, in-situ hybridisation and Western blotting. Alzheimer's disease hippocampi displayed an increase in trkA receptor levels in astrocytes in the CA1 region, some of which were associated with(More)