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Many microorganisms, including Escherichia coli, can survive extended periods of starvation. The properties of cells that survived prolonged incubation in stationary phase were studied by mixture of 10-day-old (aged) cultures with 1-day-old (young) cultures of the same strain of Escherichia coli. Mutants from the aged cultures that could grow eventually(More)
In the natural environment bacteria seldom encounter conditions that permit periods of exponential growth. Rather, bacterial growth is characterized by long periods of nutritional deprivation punctuated by short periods that allow fast growth, a feature that is commonly referred to as the feast-or-famine lifestyle. In this chapter we review the recent(More)
The ability of Escherichia coli to survive at low pH is strongly affected by environmental factors, such as composition of the growth medium and growth phase. Exposure to short-chain fatty acids, such as acetate, proprionate, and butyrate, at neutral or nearly neutral pH has also been shown to increase acid survival of E. coli and Salmonella enterica(More)
We have systematically assayed the in vivo promoter recognition properties of 13 mutations in rpoD, the gene that encodes the sigma 70 subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase holoenzyme, using transcriptional fusions to 37 mutant and wild-type promoters. We found three classes of rpoD mutations: (1) mutations that suggest contacts between amino acid(More)
The sigma 70 subunit of E. coli RNA polymerase is required for sequence-specific recognition of promoter DNA. Genetic studies and sequence analysis have indicated that sigma 70 contains two specific DNA-binding domains that recognize the two conserved portions of the prokaryotic promoter. However, intact sigma 70 does not bind to DNA. Using C-terminal and(More)
Gene expression from plasmids containing the araBAD promoter can be regulated by the concentration of arabinose in the growth medium. Guzman et al. [Guzman, L.-M., Belin, D., Carson, M. J. & Beckwith, J. (1995) J. Bacteriol. 177, 4121-4130] showed that expression of a cloned gene could be modulated over several orders of magnitude in cultures grown in the(More)
The surB gene was identified as a gene product required for Escherichia coli cells to exit stationary phase at 37 degrees C under aerobic conditions. surB was shown to be the same as cydC, whose product is required for the proper assembly and activity of cytochrome d oxidase. Cytochrome d oxidase, encoded by the cydAB operon, is one of two alternate(More)
The Escherichia coli gene murZ, encoding the enzyme UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase, has been cloned and sequenced. Identified by screening an E. coli genomic library for clones that conferred phosphomycin resistance, murZ encoded a 419-amino-acid polypeptide and was mapped to 69.3 min on the E. coli chromosome. MurZ protein was purified to(More)
Large-scale genetic interaction studies provide the basis for defining gene function and pathway architecture. Recent advances in the ability to generate double mutants en masse in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have dramatically accelerated the acquisition of genetic interaction information and the biological inferences that follow. Here we describe a method(More)