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The calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are a diverse group of antihypertensive medications with variable pharmacokinetics and clinical effects. Although CCBs have been widely applied to the treatment of hypertensive children, data regarding the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of these agents in children are extremely limited. In this review we briefly(More)
Drug dosage adjustment for patients with acute or chronic kidney disease is an accepted standard of practice. The challenge is how to accurately estimate a patient's kidney function in both acute and chronic kidney disease and determine the influence of renal replacement therapies on drug disposition. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) held a(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Pharmacotherapy in critically ill patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) is challenging due to the lack of published information to base dosing regimens. METHODS Daptomycin's transmembrane clearance during continuous hemofiltration and hemodialysis was assessed using an in vitro model with AN69 and polysulfone(More)
Higher doses of renal replacement therapy have profound effects on pharmacotherapy, yet little research has been conducted in this area. High-volume renal replacement therapies influence both the pharmacokinetic and the pharmacodynamic profiles of all drugs administered to these critically ill patients. Intermittent high-dose "hybrid" hemodialysis therapies(More)
AIMS Regional citrate anticoagulation during acute renal replacement therapy (RRT) effectively prevents extracorporeal thrombosis and avoids bleeding risk. There have been a number of citrate anticoagulation protocols published; but a simple and predictable scheme with standardized components and procedures, as well as clearly defined citrate(More)
OBJECTIVE To demonstrate the efficacy of hyperosmolar dialysis and prefilter replacement fluid solutions for continuous renal replacement therapies in the correction of hyperosmolar disorders in acute renal failure. DATA SOURCE An Institutional Review Board-approved pediatric acute renal failure database at the University of Michigan C. S. Mott Children's(More)
The epidemiology of drug-induced renal disorders is a complex topic. Drug-associated nephrotoxicity accounts for 18 - 27% of all acute kidney injury cases in US hospitals. Medications can affect all aspects of the kidney, and drugs that are associated with renal dysfunction are used commonly in clinical practice. The article reviews six major mechanisms of(More)
BACKGROUND In 2006, there were 16 796 toxic exposures attributed to valproic acid (VPA), carbamazepine (CBZ) and phenytoin (PHT) reported to the US Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. Of these, 30% (5046) were treated in a health care facility with 12 cases resulting in death. These drugs are highly protein bound and poorly dialyzable; however, it has been(More)
In critically ill children weighing <10 kg, it is necessary to use blood as a priming solution for the extracorporeal continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) circuit before initiating CRRT to prevent hemodilution and maintain adequate oxygenation. However, blood bank blood usually contains supra-physiological electrolyte concentrations and a(More)
Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is used to treat critically ill children with acute kidney injury. The effect of CRRT on trace element clearance is poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to quantify the transmembrane clearance of chromium, copper, manganese, selenium and zinc during continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF).(More)