Deborah A. Nicoll-Griffith

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In this study, we report the effect of methanol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and acetonitrile on the cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated metabolism of several substrates in human liver microsomes: phenacetin O-deethylation for P4501A2, coumarin 7-hydroxylation for P4502A6, tolbutamide hydroxylation for P4502C8/2C9, S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation for P4502C19,(More)
It is generally accepted that there is neither a well-defined nor a consistent link between the formation of drug-protein adducts and organ toxicity. Because the potential does exist, however, for these processes to be causally related, the general strategy at Merck Research Laboratories has been to minimize reactive metabolite formation to the extent(More)
As domestic animals such as cat, horse, and dog increasingly become the clinical targets for drug discovery programs, the need to understand how these animals metabolize xenobiotics becomes more important. In the present study, substrates and inhibitors that were reported to be selective for particular P450 isozymes were used as probes to study in vitro(More)
Recently, a novel nonfluorescent probe 3-[2-(N,N-diethyl-N-methylammonium)-ethyl]-7-methoxy-4-methylcoumarin (AMMC), which produces a fluorescent metabolite AMHC (3-[2-(N,N-diethyl-N-methylammonium)ethyl]-7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin) was used with microsomes containing recombinant enzymes (rCYP) to monitor CYP2D6 inhibition in a microtiter plate assay. This(More)
Our laboratory has been routinely using suspended and cultured human hepatocytes for predicting drug metabolism and enzyme induction by drug candidates to aid drug discovery. Increasing limitation and irregular availability of human tissue has indicated the need for maximizing the use of this valuable resource. Cryopreservation of surplus hepatocytes after(More)
Induction of cytochromes P450 (P450s) by drugs can lead to drug-drug interactions. Primary hepatocytes have been reported to retain inducible P450s. To optimize the use of primary hepatocytes for predicting induction of P450 (CYP 3A and 2B) expression in vivo, both culture conditions and expression of induction potentials were investigated. In rat(More)
Odanacatib is a potent cathespin K inhibitor that is being developed as a novel therapy for osteoporosis. The disposition and metabolism of odanacatib were evaluated in rats, dogs, and rhesus monkeys after intravenous and oral administration of [¹⁴C]odanacatib. Odanacatib was characterized by low systemic clearance in all species and by a long plasma(More)
Metabolite identification studies involve the detection and structural characterization of the biotransformation products of drug candidates. These experiments are necessary throughout the drug discovery and development process. The use of high-resolution chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry together with data processing using mass defect(More)
The standard method to evaluate CYP3A inhibition is to study the conversion of the specific CYP3A probe testosterone to its 6 beta-hydroxy metabolite in human liver microsomes, in the absence and presence of potential inhibitors. Quantification of the 6 beta-hydroxy metabolite is achieved by HPLC resulting in a tedious and time-consuming assay. In order to(More)
The normal metabolism of drugs can generate metabolites that have intrinsic chemical reactivity towards cellular molecules, and therefore have the potential to alter biological function and initiate serious adverse drug reactions. Here, we present an assessment of the current approaches used for the evaluation of chemically reactive metabolites. We also(More)