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Common genetic polymorphisms may explain a portion of the heritable risk for common diseases. Within candidate genes, the number of common polymorphisms is finite, but direct assay of all existing common polymorphism is inefficient, because genotypes at many of these sites are strongly correlated. Thus, it is not necessary to assay all common variants if(More)
Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides are among the most important risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) and are targets for therapeutic intervention. We screened the genome for common variants associated with plasma lipids in >100,000 individuals of(More)
As a first step toward understanding how rare variants contribute to risk for complex diseases, we sequenced 15,585 human protein-coding genes to an average median depth of 111× in 2440 individuals of European (n = 1351) and African (n = 1088) ancestry. We identified over 500,000 single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), the majority of which were rare (86% with a(More)
Fluorescence-based sequencing is playing an increasingly important role in efforts to identify DNA polymorphisms and mutations of biological and medical interest. The application of this technology in generating the reference sequence of simple and complex genomes is also driving the development of new computer programs to automate base calling (Phred),(More)
234 nature genetics • volume 27 • march 2001 Nevertheless, these new microarray methods are notable for their simplicity and their ability to be scaled up. This is illustrated by the construction of 'whole-genome scan' arrays, in which probes representing the vast majority of all exons predicted by Genscan in the draft human genome (over 442,000) were(More)
Genetic variation among individual humans occurs on many different scales, ranging from gross alterations in the human karyotype to single nucleotide changes. Here we explore variation on an intermediate scale--particularly insertions, deletions and inversions affecting from a few thousand to a few million base pairs. We employed a clone-based method to(More)
Establishing the age of each mutation segregating in contemporary human populations is important to fully understand our evolutionary history and will help to facilitate the development of new approaches for disease-gene discovery. Large-scale surveys of human genetic variation have reported signatures of recent explosive population growth, notable for an(More)
Three common protein isoforms of apolipoprotein E (apoE), encoded by the epsilon2, epsilon3, and epsilon4 alleles of the APOE gene, differ in their association with cardiovascular and Alzheimer's disease risk. To gain a better understanding of the genetic variation underlying this important polymorphism, we identified sequence haplotype variation in 5.5 kb(More)
Lipoprotein lipase plays a central role in lipid metabolism and the gene that encodes this enzyme (LPL) is a candidate susceptibility gene for cardiovascular disease. Here we report the complete sequence of a fraction of the LPL gene for 71 individuals (142 chromosomes) from three populations that may have different histories affecting the organization of(More)
It is well established that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a strong genetic component; however, for at least 70% of cases, the underlying genetic cause is unknown. Under the hypothesis that de novo mutations underlie a substantial fraction of the risk for developing ASD in families with no previous history of ASD or related phenotypes--so-called(More)