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CONTEXT Despite recent studies that failed to show catastrophic effects of prenatal cocaine exposure, popular attitudes and public policies still reflect the belief that cocaine is a uniquely dangerous teratogen. OBJECTIVE To critically review outcomes in early childhood after prenatal cocaine exposure in 5 domains: physical growth; cognition; language(More)
Whether intrauterine exposures to alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, or cocaine predispose offspring to substance use in adolescence has not been established. We followed a sample of 149 primarily African American/African Caribbean, urban adolescents, recruited at term birth, until age 16 to investigate intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE). We found that in(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), or the interaction between PCE and contextual variables, is associated with children's language at age 6 and 9.5 years, adjusting for relevant covariates. METHODS Analyses were based on 160 low-income, urban children from a prospective study who completed a standardized language assessment at(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to use volumetric MRI to study brain volumes in 10- to 14-year-old children with and without intrauterine exposure to cocaine, alcohol, cigarettes, or marijuana. METHODS Volumetric MRI was performed on 35 children (mean age: 12.3 years; 14 with intrauterine exposure to cocaine, 21 with no intrauterine exposure to(More)
Two hundred and two primarily African American/Caribbean children (classified by maternal report and infant meconium as 38 heavier, 74 lighter and 89 not cocaine-exposed) were measured repeatedly from birth to age 8 years to assess whether there is an independent effect of pre-natal cocaine exposure on physical growth patterns. Children with fetal alcohol(More)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether children with a history of disorganized attachment in infancy were more likely than children without a history of disorganized attachment to exhibit symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at school age following trauma exposure. The sample consisted of 78 8.5-year-old children from a larger,(More)
In response to U.S. Public Health Service projects promoting attention to disparities in the outcomes of mental health treatments, in July 2001, the American Psychological Association, the National Institute of Mental Health, and the Fordham University Center for Ethics Education convened a group of national leaders in bioethics, multicultural research, and(More)
This longitudinal study evaluated whether the level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) or the interaction between IUCE and contextual variables was related during middle childhood to executive functioning, as assessed with the Stroop Color-Word and Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure tests. The Stroop Interference score measures verbal inhibitory control(More)
Individual differences in adolescents' executive functioning are often attributed either to intrauterine substance exposure or to adolescents' own substance use, but both predictors typically have not been evaluated simultaneously in the same study. This prospective study evaluated whether intrauterine drug exposures, the adolescents' own substance use,(More)
Interleukin (IL)-12 plays a critical role in modulating the activities of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes. In animal models, IL-12 has potent antitumor effects that are likely mediated by its ability to enhance the cytotoxic activity of NK cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and to induce the production of interferon (IFN)-gamma by NK and T(More)