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Interactive behavior is constrained by the design of the artifacts available (e.g., a mouse and button) as well as by the ways in which elementary cognitive, perceptual, and motor operations can be combined. Any 2 basic activities, for example, (a) moving to and (b) clicking on a button, can be combined to yield a limited number of microstrategies. The(More)
The time to resume task goals after an interruption varied depending on the duration and cognitive demand of interruptions, as predicted by the memory for goals model (Altmann & Trafton, 2002). Three experiments using an interleaved tasks interruption paradigm showed that longer and more demanding interruptions led to longer resumption times in a(More)
This research adopted a model of goal activation to study the mechanisms underlying interrupted task performance. The effects of interruption timing, type of interruption, and age on task time and primary task resumption time were explored under conditions in which attention was switched back and forth between two tasks, much as when drivers shift attention(More)
Task analytic theories of graph comprehension account for the perceptual and conceptual processes required to extract specific information from graphs. Comparatively, the processes underlying information integration have received less attention. We propose a new framework for information integration that highlights visual integration and cognitive(More)
This research examined the effects of three different data base formats on the information retrieval performance of users. Spatial, tabular, and verbal forms of two data base domains (airline and thesaurus) were constructed, along with questions that required users to search through the data base to determine the correct response. Three types of questions,(More)
The visual occlusion technique has received considerable attention in recent years as a method for measuring the interruptible aspects of in-vehicle information system (IVIS) task performance. Because the visual occlusion technique lacks a loading task during " occluded " periods, an alternate method was adopted to provide increased sensitivity to the(More)
It has been mentioned that application should be designed for maintenance [AlC98]. Maintainability is defined as the ease with which systems can be understood and modified [GiS89]. Maintenance is required for old legacy systems as well as new developed systems, which for example use object-oriented (OO) languages. It is well known that software maintenance(More)
This study investigates how information is extracted from a graph when different types of questions are asked. Although the process for extracting local information from simple graphs is understood quite well, the processes used to extract global information from more complex graphs are not as clear. In a series of two studies using verbal protocols and eye(More)