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A river carries pollutants to people living along it if it is polluted. To make the water in the river clean, some costs are incurred. This poses a question of how to split the costs of cleaning the whole river among the agents located along it. To answer this question, we resort to the two main advocated doctrines in international disputes: the theory of(More)
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is defined as corporate activities and their 7 impacts on different social groups. In this paper, CSR is considered in a two-echelon supply 8 chain consisting of an upstream supplier and a downstream firm that are bound by a wholesale 9 price contract. CSR performance (the outcome of CSR conduct) of the whole supply(More)
A number of agents (e.g., firms, villages, municipalities, or countries) are connected to a river network. Some agents are located upstream and some downstream. Upstream agents pollute the river network. To clean up the polluted river network, costs are incurred, and they are shared among the agents. In allocating these costs, the upstream-downstream(More)
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