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Four pigeons were trained in a successive same/different procedure involving the alternation of two stimuli per trial. Using a go/no-go procedure, two different or two identical color photographs were alternated, with a brief, dark, inter-stimulus interval, on a computer screen for 20 s. Pigeons learned to discriminate between same (S+) and different (D−)(More)
Adults searched for a goal in images of a rectangular environment. The goal's position was constant relative to featural and geometric cues, but the absolute position changed across trials. Participants easily learned to use the featural cues to find the target, but learning to use only geometric information was difficult. Transformation tests revealed that(More)
Adult humans searched for a hidden goal in images depicting 3-dimensional rooms. Images contained either featural cues, geometric cues, or both, which could be used to determine the correct location of the goal. In Experiment 1, participants learned to use featural and geometric information equally well. However, men and women showed significant differences(More)
Successful navigation within an environment requires that the traveler establish the correct heading--a process referred to as orienting. Many studies have now shown that humans and non-human animals can use the geometric properties of an enclosure to orient. In the present study, two groups of Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) were trained, in a(More)
Disoriented men and women were trained to search for a goal hidden in front of one of four objects forming a rectangular-shaped array. The angular properties of these objects (either 50° or 75°) served as local geometric cues and the rectangular shape of the array served as global geometric cues. Upon successful completion of training, transformation tests(More)
The task of determining an optimal route to several locations is called the traveling salesperson problem (TSP). The TSP has been used recently to examine spatial cognition in humans and non-human animals. It remains unclear whether or not the decision process of animals other than non-human primates utilizes rigid rule-based heuristics, or whether(More)
We report that adult nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) and newborn domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) show a leftward bias when required to locate an object in a series of identical ones on the basis of its ordinal position. Birds were trained to peck at either the fourth or sixth element in a series of 16 identical and aligned positions. These were placed in(More)
Roberts and Van Veldhuizen's [Roberts, W.A., Van Veldhuizen, N., 1985. Spatial memory in pigeons on the radial maze. J. Exp. Psychol.: Anim. Behav. Proc. 11, 241-260] study on pigeons in the radial maze sparked research on landmark use by pigeons in lab-based tasks as well as variants of the radial-maze task. Pigeons perform well on open-field versions of(More)
Pigeons (Columba livia) searched for food hidden in the center of a square enclosure. On occasional tests without food, the enclosure was (a) unchanged from training (control tests), (b) moved to different corners of the testing room (corner tests), or (c) doubled in size (expansion tests). The birds showed localized search in the center of the enclosure on(More)
The reorientation task is a paradigm that has been used extensively to study the types of information used by humans and animals to navigate in their environment. In this task, subjects are reinforced for going to a particular location in an arena that is typically rectangular in shape. The subject then has to find that location again after being(More)