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Four pigeons were trained in a successive same/different procedure involving the alternation of two stimuli per trial. Using a go/no-go procedure, two different or two identical color photographs were alternated, with a brief, dark, inter-stimulus interval, on a computer screen for 20 s. Pigeons learned to discriminate between same (S+) and different (D−)(More)
Adults searched for a goal in images of a rectangular environment. The goal's position was constant relative to featural and geometric cues, but the absolute position changed across trials. Participants easily learned to use the featural cues to find the target, but learning to use only geometric information was difficult. Transformation tests revealed that(More)
Adult humans searched for a hidden goal in images depicting 3-dimensional rooms. Images contained either featural cues, geometric cues, or both, which could be used to determine the correct location of the goal. In Experiment 1, participants learned to use featural and geometric information equally well. However, men and women showed significant differences(More)
The reorientation task is a paradigm that has been used extensively to study the types of information used by humans and animals to navigate in their environment. In this task, subjects are reinforced for going to a particular location in an arena that is typically rectangular in shape. The subject then has to find that location again after being(More)
Pigeons (Columba livia) searched for food hidden in the center of a square enclosure. On occasional tests without food, the enclosure was (a) unchanged from training (control tests), (b) moved to different corners of the testing room (corner tests), or (c) doubled in size (expansion tests). The birds showed localized search in the center of the enclosure on(More)
Successful navigation within an environment requires that the traveler establish the correct heading—a process referred to as orienting. Many studies have now shown that humans and non-human animals can use the geometric properties of an enclosure to orient. In the present study, two groups of Clark’s nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) were trained, in a(More)
Three experiment examined the role of contextual information during line orientation and line position discriminations by pigeons (Columba livia) and humans (Homo sapiens). Experiment 1 tested pigeons' performance with these stimuli in a target localization task using texture displays. Experiments 2 and 3 tested pigeons and humans, respectively, with small(More)
Human participants searched in a real environment or interactive 3-D virtual environment open field for four hidden goal locations arranged in a 2 x 2 square configuration in a 5 x 5 matrix of raised bins. The participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: cues + pattern or pattern only. The participants experienced a training phase, followed by(More)
Human participants searched in a dynamic three-dimensional virtual-environment rectangular enclosure for a distinctly colored bin located in one of the four corners. During test trials, all bins were rendered identical in color, and the shape of the rectangular search space either remained the same or was modified to a relatively sized contracted rectangle,(More)
The task of determining an optimal route to several locations is called the traveling salesperson problem (TSP). The TSP has been used recently to examine spatial cognition in humans and non-human animals. It remains unclear whether or not the decision process of animals other than non-human primates utilizes rigid rule-based heuristics, or whether(More)