Debbie M. Kelly

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Pigeons (Columba livia) searched for hidden food in a rectangular environment constructed to eliminate external orientation cues. A feature group was initially trained with distinct features in each corner. A geometric group was initially trained with no featural information. Tests revealed that both groups encoded the geometry of the apparatus. The(More)
Pigeons and humans searched for a goal that was hidden in varied locations within a search space. The goal location was fixed relative to an array of identical landmarks. Pigeons searched on the laboratory floor, and humans searched on a table top or an outdoor field. In Experiment 1, the goal was centered in a square array of 4 landmarks. When the spacing(More)
Four pigeons were trained in a successive same/different procedure involving the alternation of two stimuli per trial. Using a go/no-go procedure, two different or two identical color photographs were alternated, with a brief, dark, inter-stimulus interval, on a computer screen for 20 s. Pigeons learned to discriminate between same (S+) and different (D−)(More)
Successful navigation within an environment requires that the traveler establish the correct heading—a process referred to as orienting. Many studies have now shown that humans and non-human animals can use the geometric properties of an enclosure to orient. In the present study, two groups of Clark’s nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) were trained, in a(More)
Adult humans searched for a hidden goal in images depicting 3-dimensional rooms. Images contained either featural cues, geometric cues, or both, which could be used to determine the correct location of the goal. In Experiment 1, participants learned to use featural and geometric information equally well. However, men and women showed significant differences(More)
Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus jacchus), human children, and human adults learned to Wnd a goal that was located in the center of a square array of four identical landmarks. The location of the landmark array and corresponding goal varied across trials, so the task could not be solved without using the landmark array. In Experiment 1, a matrix of(More)
Pigeons (Columba livia) searched for food hidden in the center of a square enclosure. On occasional tests without food, the enclosure was (a) unchanged from training (control tests), (b) moved to different corners of the testing room (corner tests), or (c) doubled in size (expansion tests). The birds showed localized search in the center of the enclosure on(More)
Adults searched for a goal in images of a rectangular environment. The goal's position was constant relative to featural and geometric cues, but the absolute position changed across trials. Participants easily learned to use the featural cues to find the target, but learning to use only geometric information was difficult. Transformation tests revealed that(More)
To navigate efficiently, a traveler must establish a heading using a frame of reference. A large body of evidence has indicated that humans and a variety of nonhuman animals utilize the geometry, or shape, of enclosed spaces as a frame of reference to determine their heading. An important and yet unresolved question is whether shape information from arrays(More)
Many studies have examined how humans and other animals reestablish a sense of direction following disorientation in enclosed environments. Results showing that geometric shape of an enclosure is typically encoded, sometimes to the exclusion of featural cues, have led to suggestions that geometry might be encoded in a dedicated geometric module. Recently,(More)