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This paper presents a study on gain dynamics of EDFA chains in long-haul optical networks along with candidate solutions to alleviate the adverse effects caused by EDFA gain fluctuations and the corresponding results.
Node architectures which are currently being considered for wavelength-routed WDM optical networks do not provide a high degree of scalability with respect to the number of wavelengths in the system. In this investigation, we propose a new node architecture which allows new wavelengths to be added to the network without signiicant additional costs. We study… (More)
We report a study of the self-assembly of 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol monolayers on gold formed in n-hexane solution held at 60 °C for 30 min and in dark conditions. The valence band characteristics, the thickness of the layer, and the orientation of the molecules were analyzed at a synchrotron using high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy and near edge… (More)
Fuzzy random variables possess several interpretations. Historically, they were proposed either as a tool for handling linguistic label information in statistics or to represent uncertainty about classical random variables. Accordingly, there are two different approaches to the definition of the variance of a fuzzy random variable. In the first one, the… (More)
We propose a comprehensive design methodology for control and data planes of wavelength-routed optical networks (WRONs) employing mixed-line-rate (MLR) transmission for cost-effective resource provisioning. The proposed approach attempts to minimize the maximum lightpath capacity demand in Gbps (representing the measure of lightpath congestion) in network… (More)
Today's telecommunication networks employ optical fibers almost at all levels along with wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) technology. This paper presents an overview of the design methodologies for optical WDM networks in presence of transmission impairments in physical layer.
A simple and cost effective nanocluster ion source for the deposition of size selected metal nanocluster has been developed based on the dc magnetron discharge (including pulsed dc discharge). The most important and interesting feature of this cluster source is that it is working at room temperature, cooled by chilled water during the experiment. There is… (More)