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After the engagement of Ag receptor, most of the Th cells for their optimal activation require a second (costimulatory) signal provided by the APCs. We demonstrate the isolation and characterization of a 99- to 105-kDa protein (B2), from LPS-activated B cell surface, and its function as a Th2-specific costimulatory molecule. Appearance of B2 as a single(More)
BACKGROUND Cellular miRNAs play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Recently, miRNAs have also been shown to be able to target and inhibit viral gene expression. Computational predictions revealed earlier that the HIV-1 genome includes regions that may be potentially targeted by human miRNAs. Here we report the(More)
One hallmark of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is the dysregulation of cytokine gene expression in T cells. Transfection of T cells with human T-cell leukemia type 1 or 2 transactivator results in the induction of the T-cell-restricted cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) and its receptor (IL-2Ralpha). However, no T-cell-specific factor(s)(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) Nef protein is now regarded as a regulatory protein responsible not only for establishment of infection and increased pathogenesis but also for enhancement of viral replication. However, the mechanism of Nef-induced activation of viral replication remains to be clearly understood. Using transient transfection assay,(More)
A polyherbal cream (Basant) has been formulated using diferuloylmethane (curcumin), purified extracts of Emblica officinalis (Amla), purified saponins from Sapindus mukorossi, Aloe vera and rose water along with pharmacopoeially approved excipients and preservatives. Basant inhibits the growth of WHO strains and clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae,(More)
Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) encodes a 27 kDa Negative Factor or Nef protein, which is increasingly proving to be a misnomer. Nef seems to be crucial for AIDS progression as individuals infected with nef-deleted strain of HIV were reported to become Long Term Non Progressors (LTNP). These findings necessitate tracing of Nef's footprint on(More)
We previously showed that CD28 is expressed on human peripheral blood neutrophils and plays an important role in CXCR-1 expression and IL-8-induced neutrophil migration. In this work we demonstrate that Leishmania major infection of macrophages results in parasite dose-dependent IL-8 secretion in vitro and in IL-8-directed neutrophil migration, as blocked(More)
To better understand DNA recognition and transcription activity by SATB1, the T-lineage-enriched chromatin organizer and transcription factor, we have determined its optimal DNA-binding sequence by random oligonucleotide selection. The consensus SATB1-binding sequence (CSBS) comprises a palindromic sequence in which two identical AT-rich half-sites are(More)
The primary transcript of the human CD28 gene in T lymphocytes, encoding for a costimulatory molecule, is known to undergo alternative splicing, and different small sets of variant isoforms have been reported. This report presents the novel simultaneous presence of eight different mRNA isoforms, all observed together in normal human T cells; this is an(More)
Several options for treating Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 and type 2 are available. However, non-specific inhibition and drug resistance warrants the discovery of new anti-herpetic compounds with better therapeutic profile or different mode of action. The non-nucleoside inhibitors of HSV DNA polymerase target the site that is less important for the binding(More)