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In conversation, speakers and addressees work together in the making of a definite reference. In the model we propose, the speaker initiates the process by presenting or inviting a noun phrase. Before going on to the next contribution , the participants, if necessary, repair, expand on, or replace the noun phrase in an iterative process until they reach a(More)
We show that participants in conversation develop beliefs about shared information that others do not. So-called directors talked with two partners in succession (A and B) to arrange unusual figures. Directors went from long, indefinite descriptions of the figures to short, definite references as common ground was built up with A. When B had been a silent(More)
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