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BACKGROUND Female sex workers are a population who are at heightened risk of HIV infection secondary to biological, behavioural, and structural risk factors. However, three decades into the HIV pandemic, understanding of the burden of HIV among these women remains limited. We aimed to assess the burden of HIV in this population compared with that of other(More)
INTRODUCTION Similar to other Southern African countries, Swaziland has been severely affected by HIV, with over a quarter of its reproductive-age adults estimated to be living with the virus, equating to an estimate of 170,000 people living with HIV. The last several years have witnessed an increase in the understanding of the potential vulnerabilities(More)
OBJECTIVES We assessed the effectiveness of 2 environmental-structural interventions in reducing risks of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers in the Dominican Republic. METHODS Two intervention models were implemented over a 1-year period: community solidarity in Santo Domingo and solidarity combined with government(More)
The women, men, and transgender people who sell sex globally have disproportionate risks and burdens of HIV in countries of low, middle, and high income, and in concentrated and generalised epidemic contexts. The greatest HIV burdens continue to be in African female sex workers. Worldwide, sex workers still face reduced access to needed HIV prevention,(More)
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of community empowerment interventions for HIV prevention among sex workers in low- and middle-income countries from 1990-2010. Two coders abstracted data using standardized forms. Of 6,664 citations screened, ten studies met inclusion criteria. For HIV infection, two observational studies showed a(More)
Male partners of female sex workers are rarely targeted by HIV prevention interventions in the commercial sex industry, despite recognition of their central role and power in condom use negotiation. Social networks offer a naturally existing social structure to increase male participation in preventing HIV. The purpose of this study was to explore the(More)
PROBLEM Female sex workers (FSWs) worldwide suffer disproportionate burdens of HIV and gender-based violence. Despite evidence linking these threats, little is known about the potential HIV epidemic impact of reducing abuse. METHOD OF STUDY The Goals model approximated the impact of reducing violence against FSWs on HIV epidemics in Ukraine and Kenya,(More)
This paper examines the activities of churches in Baltimore, Maryland, concerning the issues of sexuality, whether they potentially stigmatize persons with or at risk for HIV/AIDS, and to what extent individual agency versus institutional forces influence churches in this regard. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 leaders from 16 churches and(More)
A community empowerment-based response to HIV is a process by which sex workers take collective ownership of programmes to achieve the most effective HIV outcomes and address social and structural barriers to their overall health and human rights. Community empowerment has increasingly gained recognition as a key approach for addressing HIV in sex workers,(More)
OBJECTIVES We sought to determine the association of social-environmental factors with condom use and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among 420 sex workers participating in an STI/HIV prevention study in Corumbá, Brazil, to inform future intervention efforts. METHODS Participants provided urine samples for polymerase chain reaction testing of(More)