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A transient burst of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of nuclear proteins occurs early, prior to commitment to death, in human osteosarcoma cells undergoing apoptosis, followed by caspase-3-mediated cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). The generality of this early burst of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation has now been investigated with human HL-60 cells, mouse(More)
3T3-L1 preadipocytes have been shown to exhibit a transient increase in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein and activity, as well as an association of PARP with DNA polymerase alpha, within 12-24 h of exposure to inducers of differentiation, whereas 3T3-L1 cells expressing PARP antisense RNA showed no increase in PARP and are unable to complete the(More)
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a component of the multiprotein DNA replication complex (MRC, DNA synthesome) that catalyzes replication of viral DNA in vitro. PARP poly(ADP-ribosyl)ates 15 of the approximately 40 proteins of the MRC, including DNA polymerase alpha (DNA pol alpha), DNA topoisomerase I (topo I), and proliferating-cell nuclear antigen(More)
Ceramide, a sphingolipid generated by the hydrolysis of membrane-associated sphingomyelin, appears to play a role as a gauge of apoptosis. A further metabolite of ceramide, sphingosine 1-phosphate (SPP), prevents ceramide-mediated apoptosis, and it has been suggested that the balance between intracellular ceramide and SPP levels may determine the cell fate(More)
Sphingosine and sphingosine 1-phosphate, metabolites of sphingolipids, stimulate cell proliferation in quiescent Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts and induce transient increases in intracellular free calcium (Zhang, H., Desai, N. N., Olivera, A., Seki, T., Brooker, G., and Spiegel, S. (1991) J. Cell Biol. 114, 155-167). However, little is yet known of the nuclear(More)
The 5 S DNAs and several tDNAs of Xenopus laevis reside primarily in large clusters of tandem repeating units. We have discovered that a substantial number of these genes, along with portions of their adjacent spacer sequences, are also located in dispersed genomic locations apart from the major clusters. This was accomplished by "null-digesting" total(More)
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), which is catalytically activated by DNA strand breaks, has been implicated in apoptosis, or programmed cell death. A protease (CPP32) responsible for the cleavage of PARP and necessary for apoptosis was recently purified and characterized. The coordinated sequence of events related to PARP activation and cleavage in(More)
Sulfur mustard is cytotoxic to dermal fibroblasts as well as epidermal keratinocytes. We demonstrated that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) modulates Fas-mediated apoptosis, and other groups and we have shown that PARP plays a role in the modulation of other types of apoptotic and necrotic cell death. We have now utilized primary dermal fibroblasts,(More)
During apoptosis, DNA undergoes fragmentation and caspase-3 cleaves poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) into both a 24-kDa fragment containing the DNA binding domain and an 89-kDa fragment containing the catalytic and automodification domains. Atomic force microscopy revealed that recombinant full-length PARP bound to plasmid DNA fragments and linked them(More)
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PADPRP) is biologically significant in the rejoining of DNA strand breaks. Post confluent cultures of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes showed marked increases in PADPRP protein and activity when the cells were induced to differentiate into adipocytes. When this increase in PADPRP expression was prevented in stably transfected 3T3-L1 cells(More)