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As primary producers, plants are known to influence higher trophic interactions by initiating food chains. However, as architects, plants may bypass consumers to directly affect predators with important but underappreciated trophic ramifications. Invasion of western North American grasslands by the perennial forb, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa), has(More)
The use of indices to evaluate small-mammal populations has been heavily criticized, yet a review of small-mammal studies published from 1996 through 2000 indicated that indices are still the primary methods employed for measuring populations. The literature review also found that 98% of the samples collected in these studies were too small for reliable(More)
Long-term studies have revealed population declines in fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. In birds, and particularly amphibians, these declines are a global phenomenon whose causes are often unclear. Among reptiles, snakes are top predators and therefore a decline in their numbers may have serious consequences for the functioning of many(More)
Although post-dispersal seed predators are common and often reduce seed density, their influence on plant population abundance remains unclear. On the one hand, increasing evidence suggests that many plant populations are seed limited, implying that seed predators could reduce plant abundance. On the other hand,.it is generally uncertain whether the(More)
The threat posed by exotic organisms to native systems has led to extensive research on exotic invaders, yet management of invasives has progressed relatively slowly. This is partly due to poor understanding of how exotic species management influences native organisms. To address this shortfall, we experimentally evaluated the efficacy of an invasives(More)
1. Invasive species are one of the leading threats to biodiversity worldwide. Therefore, chemical herbicides are increasingly used to control invasive plants in natural and semi-natural areas. Little is known about the non-target impacts of these chemicals on native species. 2. We conducted an experiment to test the demographic effects of the herbicide(More)
In fire-adapted ecosystems, fire is presumed to be the dominant ecological force, and little is known about how consumer interactions influence forest regeneration. Here, we investigated seed predation by deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and its effects on recruitment of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings in(More)
Biological control of exotic invasive plants using exotic insects is practiced under the assumption that biological control agents are safe if they do not directly attack non-target species. We tested this assumption by evaluating the potential for two host-specific biological control agents (Urophora spp.), widely established in North America for spotted(More)