Dean A Tolla

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One of the major unsolved problems of modern biology is deep understanding of the complex relationship between the information encoded in the genome of an organism and the phenotypic properties manifested by that organism. Fundamental advances must be made before we can begin to approach the goal of predicting the phenotypic consequences of a given mutation(More)
The FNR (fumarate nitrate reduction) protein plays a central role in the global oxygen response of a variety of bacteria. In Escherichia coli, FNR is the master transcriptional regulator of the transition between aerobic and anaerobic growth. Regulation of FNR is achieved by cycling the molecule between three states in a process dependent on oxygen. In an(More)
The FNR protein in Escherichia coli is an O(2) sensor that modifies global gene expression to adapt the cell to anaerobic growth. Regulation of FNR involves continuous cycling of the protein between its active and inactive states under aerobic conditions without apparent function. This raises the question of what benefit to the overall life cycle might(More)
In this report, we characterize the design principles of futile cycling in providing rapid adaptation by regulatory proteins that act as environmental sensors. In contrast to the energetically wasteful futile cycles that are avoided in metabolic pathways, here we describe a conditional futile cycle exploited for a regulatory benefit. The FNR (fumarate and(More)
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