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Integrons are genetic elements that acquire and exchange exogenous DNA, known as gene cassettes, by a site-specific recombination mechanism. Characterized gene cassettes consist of a target recombination sequence (attC site) usually associated with a single open reading frame coding for an antibiotic resistance determinant. The affiliation of multiresistant(More)
Integrons are natural tools for bacterial evolution and innovation. Their involvement in the capture and dissemination of antibiotic-resistance genes among Gram-negative bacteria is well documented. Recently, massive ancestral versions, the superintegrons (SIs), were discovered in the genomes of diverse proteobacterial species. SI gene cassettes with an(More)
We describe the construction of the pSW family of conditionally replicating plasmids which are based on the IncX oriV origin (oriV(R6Kgamma)) of replication that is dependent on the pir-encoded protein. We constructed several Escherichia coli derivatives expressing pir from different chromosomal loci, and the pir gene could be transduced by phage P1 to any(More)
Spo0A is the central regulator of commitment to sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. Spo0A is a member of the response regulator family of proteins and both represses and stimulates transcription from promoters when activated. In vivo Spo0A activation takes place by phosphorylation and in vitro activation can be accomplished by phosphorylation or removal of(More)
The capture and spread of antibiotic resistance determinants by integrons underlies the rapid evolution of multiple antibiotic resistance among diverse Gram-negative clinical isolates. The association of multiple resistance integrons (MRIs) with mobile DNA elements facilitates their transit across phylogenetic boundaries and augments the potential impact of(More)
Superintegrons (SIs) are chromosomal genetic elements containing assemblies of genes, each flanked by a recombination sequence (attC site) targeted by the integron integrase. SIs may contain hundreds of attC sites and intrinsic instability is anticipated; yet SIs are remarkably stable. This implies that either selective pressure maintains the genes or(More)
Integrons were first identified as the primary mechanism for antibiotic resistance gene capture and dissemination among Gram-negative bacteria. More recently, their role in genome evolution has been extended with the discovery of larger integron structures, the super-integrons, as genuine components of the genomes of many species throughout the(More)
Although recently discovered, integrons have played a primordial role in the evolution of bacterial genomes. They are best known as the genetic agents responsible for the capture and spread of antibiotic resistance determinants among diverse Gram-negative clinical isolates, and this activity is at the root of the antibiotic resistance phenomenon that has(More)
Integrons are the primary mechanism for antibiotic-resistance gene capture and dissemination among Gram-negative bacteria. The recent finding of super-integron structures in the genomes of several bacterial species has expanded their role in genome evolution and suggests that they are the source of mobile multi-resistant integrons.
The structure of the lipopolysaccharide core of Vibrio vulnificus type strain 27562 is presented. LPS hydrolysis gave two oligosaccharides, OS-1 and OS-2, as well as lipid A. NMR spectroscopic data corresponded to the presence of one Kdo residue, one beta-glucopyranose, three heptoses, one glyceric acid, one acetate, three PEtN, and one(More)