Dean A Jackson

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HeLa cells were encapsulated in agarose microbeads, permeabilized and incubated with Br-UTP in a 'physiological' buffer; then sites of RNA synthesis were immunolabelled using an antibody that reacts with Br-RNA. After extending nascent RNA chains by < 400 nucleotides in vitro, approximately 300-500 focal synthetic sites can be seen in each nucleus by(More)
In proliferating cells, DNA synthesis must be performed with extreme precision. We show that groups of replicons, labeled together as replicon clusters, form stable units of chromosome structure. HeLa cells were labeled with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) at different times of S phase. At the onset of S phase, clusters of replicons were activated in each of(More)
HeLa cells in early S phase were encapsulated in agarose microbeads, permeabilized, and incubated with biotin-11-dUTP in a "physiological" buffer. Sites of DNA synthesis were then immunolabeled. As others have found, approximately 150 focal sites of synthesis were visible in each nucleus by light microscopy; they also contained DNA polymerase alpha and(More)
In late mitosis and early G1, Mcm2-7 complexes are loaded onto DNA to license replication origins for use in the upcoming S phase. However, the amount of Mcm2-7 loaded is in significant excess over the number of origins normally used. We show here that in human cells, excess chromatin-bound Mcm2-7 license dormant replication origins that do not fire during(More)
Mammalian nuclei contain three different RNA polymerases defined by their characteristic locations and drug sensitivities; polymerase I is found in nucleoli, and polymerases II and III in the nucleoplasm. As nascent transcripts made by polymerases I and II are concentrated in discrete sites, the locations of those made by polymerase III were investigated.(More)
In late mitosis and early G1, replication origins are licensed for subsequent use by loading complexes of the minichromosome maintenance proteins 2-7 (Mcm2-7). The number of Mcm2-7 complexes loaded onto DNA greatly exceeds the number of replication origins used during S phase, but the function of the excess Mcm2-7 is unknown. Using Xenopus laevis egg(More)
We describe a method for permeabilizing and extracting cells that preserves both structure and function whilst allowing the cell derivatives to be handled freely. Cells are encapsulated in microbeads of agarose; the coat of agarose, which is freely permeable to small molecules, forms a protective layer around fragile cell constituents. Cells are then(More)
Using HeLa cells, we have developed methods to determine 1) the number of RNA polymerases that are active at any moment, 2) the number of transcription sites, and 3) the number of polymerases associated with one transcription unit. To count engaged polymerases, cells were encapsulated in agarose, permeabilized, treated with ribonuclease, and the(More)
It is widely assumed that the vital processes of transcription and translation are spatially separated in eukaryotes and that no translation occurs in nuclei. We localized translation sites by incubating permeabilized mammalian cells with [3H]lysine or lysyl-transfer RNA tagged with biotin or BODIPY; although most nascent polypeptides were cytoplasmic, some(More)
Whether nucleoskeletons seen after extracting cells are preparative artefacts is controversial. Using an extraction method that preserves vital nuclear functions, we have visualized part of a nucleoskeleton by electron microscopy of thick resinless sections. Cells encapsulated in agarose microbeads are lysed using Triton in a physiological buffer; the(More)