Learn More
In proliferating cells, DNA synthesis must be performed with extreme precision. We show that groups of replicons, labeled together as replicon clusters, form stable units of chromosome structure. HeLa cells were labeled with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) at different times of S phase. At the onset of S phase, clusters of replicons were activated in each of(More)
When Xenopus eggs and egg extracts replicate DNA, replication origins are positioned randomly with respect to DNA sequence. However, a completely random distribution of origins would generate some unacceptably large interorigin distances. We have investigated the distribution of replication origins in Xenopus sperm nuclei replicating in Xenopus egg extract.(More)
In late mitosis and early G1, replication origins are licensed for subsequent use by loading complexes of the minichromosome maintenance proteins 2-7 (Mcm2-7). The number of Mcm2-7 complexes loaded onto DNA greatly exceeds the number of replication origins used during S phase, but the function of the excess Mcm2-7 is unknown. Using Xenopus laevis egg(More)
HeLa cells in early S phase were encapsulated in agarose microbeads, permeabilized, and incubated with biotin-11-dUTP in a "physiological" buffer. Sites of DNA synthesis were then immunolabeled. As others have found, approximately 150 focal sites of synthesis were visible in each nucleus by light microscopy; they also contained DNA polymerase alpha and(More)
Using HeLa cells, we have developed methods to determine 1) the number of RNA polymerases that are active at any moment, 2) the number of transcription sites, and 3) the number of polymerases associated with one transcription unit. To count engaged polymerases, cells were encapsulated in agarose, permeabilized, treated with ribonuclease, and the(More)
The development of drug resistance, the prime cause of failure in cancer therapy, is commonly explained by the selection of resistant mutant cancer cells. However, dynamic non-genetic heterogeneity of clonal cell populations continuously produces metastable phenotypic variants (persisters), some of which represent stem-like states that confer resistance.(More)
BACKGROUND Basic functions of the eukaryotic nucleus, like transcription and replication, are regulated in a hierarchic fashion. It is assumed that epigenetic factors influence the efficiency and precision of these processes. In order to uncouple local and long-range epigenetic features we used an extra-chromosomal replicon to study the requirements for(More)
It is widely assumed that the vital processes of transcription and translation are spatially separated in eukaryotes and that no translation occurs in nuclei. We localized translation sites by incubating permeabilized mammalian cells with [3H]lysine or lysyl-transfer RNA tagged with biotin or BODIPY; although most nascent polypeptides were cytoplasmic, some(More)
DNA synthesis must be performed with extreme precision to maintain genomic integrity. In mammalian cells, different genomic regions are replicated at defined times, perhaps to preserve epigenetic information and cell differentiation status. However, the molecular principles that define this S phase program are unknown. By analyzing replication foci within(More)