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In proliferating cells, DNA synthesis must be performed with extreme precision. We show that groups of replicons, labeled together as replicon clusters, form stable units of chromosome structure. HeLa cells were labeled with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) at different times of S phase. At the onset of S phase, clusters of replicons were activated in each of(More)
When Xenopus eggs and egg extracts replicate DNA, replication origins are positioned randomly with respect to DNA sequence. However, a completely random distribution of origins would generate some unacceptably large interorigin distances. We have investigated the distribution of replication origins in Xenopus sperm nuclei replicating in Xenopus egg extract.(More)
In late mitosis and early G1, replication origins are licensed for subsequent use by loading complexes of the minichromosome maintenance proteins 2-7 (Mcm2-7). The number of Mcm2-7 complexes loaded onto DNA greatly exceeds the number of replication origins used during S phase, but the function of the excess Mcm2-7 is unknown. Using Xenopus laevis egg(More)
The development of drug resistance, the prime cause of failure in cancer therapy, is commonly explained by the selection of resistant mutant cancer cells. However, dynamic non-genetic heterogeneity of clonal cell populations continuously produces metastable phenotypic variants (persisters), some of which represent stem-like states that confer resistance.(More)
BACKGROUND Basic functions of the eukaryotic nucleus, like transcription and replication, are regulated in a hierarchic fashion. It is assumed that epigenetic factors influence the efficiency and precision of these processes. In order to uncouple local and long-range epigenetic features we used an extra-chromosomal replicon to study the requirements for(More)
DNA synthesis must be performed with extreme precision to maintain genomic integrity. In mammalian cells, different genomic regions are replicated at defined times, perhaps to preserve epigenetic information and cell differentiation status. However, the molecular principles that define this S phase program are unknown. By analyzing replication foci within(More)
This paper describes a prototype r obot and the necessary path planning and control for space inspection applications. The robot is the rst generation of a free-ying robotic camera that will assist astronauts in constructing and maintaining the Space Station. The robot will provide remote views to astronauts inside the Space Shuttle and future S p ace(More)
Ageing is linked to the accumulation of replicatively senescent cells. The best model system to date for studying human cellular ageing is the progeroid Werner's syndrome (WS), caused by a defect in WRN, a recQ-like helicase that also possesses exonuclease activity. In this paper, we characterise the interaction between WRN and an essential replication(More)
Chk1 protein kinase maintains replication fork stability in metazoan cells in response to DNA damage and DNA replication inhibitors. Here, we have employed DNA fiber labeling to quantify, for the first time, the extent to which Chk1 maintains global replication fork rates during normal vertebrate S phase. We report that replication fork rates in Chk1(-/-)(More)
We have recently shown that induction of the p53 tumour suppressor protein by the small-molecule RITA (reactivation of p53 and induction of tumour cell apoptosis; 2,5-bis(5-hydroxymethyl-2-thienyl)furan) inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in vivo and induces p53-dependent tumour cell apoptosis in normoxia(More)