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Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses. In plants, MAPKs are classified into four groups, designated A–D. Information about group C MAPKs is limited, and, in particular, no data from maize are available. In this article, we isolated a novel group C MAPK gene, ZmMPK7, from Zea mays. Exogenous(More)
PURPOSE To investigate whether exposure of human corneal epithelial cells to hyperosmotic stress activates the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathway, and stimulates production of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs): gelatinase (MMP-9), collagenases (MMP-1 and -13), and stromelysin (MMP-3). METHODS Primary human(More)
Hyperosmolarity has been recognized to be a pro-inflammatory stress to the corneal epithelium. The cell signalling pathways linking hyperosmolar stress and inflammation have not been well elucidated. This study investigated whether exposure of human limbal epithelial cells to hyperosmotic stress activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways(More)
This study evaluated proposed molecular markers related to stem cell (SC) properties with the intention of characterizing a putative SC phenotype in human limbal epithelia. Human corneal and limbal tissues were cut in the vertical and horizontal meridians for histology, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and immunostaining. Semiquantitative reverse(More)
ABCG2, a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, has been identified as a molecular determinant for bone marrow stem cells and proposed as a universal marker for stem cells. This study investigates ABCG2 expression and its potential as a marker that identifies human limbal epithelial stem cells. ABCG2 expression was evaluated by(More)
Effects of foliar application of 100 mmol/L glycinebetaine (GB) on PS II photochemistry in wheat (Triticum aestivum) flag leaves under drought stress combined with high irradiance were investigated. The results show that GB-treated plants maintained a higher net photosynthetic rate during drought stress than non-GB treated plants. Exogenous GB can preserve(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the effects of pharmacologic inhibition of aqueous tear production and desiccating environmental stress on aqueous tear production, tear clearance, corneal epithelial permeability, and conjunctival epithelial morphology, proliferation, and conjunctival goblet cell differentiation. METHODS Aqueous tear production was inhibited by(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate whether experimentally induced dry eye in mice activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), extracellular-regulated kinases (ERK), and p38 and stimulates ocular surface inflammation. METHODS 129SvEv/CD-1 mixed mice aged 6 to 8 weeks were treated with systemic scopolamine and(More)
This study was to explore a potential role of epithelium-derived cytokines in Th17 differentiation. Th17 induction was evaluated by murine CD4(+) T cells treated with different combinations of five inducing cytokines, or conditioned media of human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) exposed to a variety of stimuli. Th17 differentiation was determined by(More)
PURPOSE To determine the effects of experimental dryness on production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their physiological inhibitors (TIMPs) by the corneal epithelium. METHODS Experimental dry eye (EDE) was created in two strains of mice: BALB/c and C57BL/6. Real-time PCR was performed with MMP and TIMP probes, and the results were analyzed by(More)