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The morphological changes that occur during normal brain aging are not well understood. This study used modern stereology to assess the effects of age and gender on total numbers of astrocytes and microglia in the hippocampal formation in C57Bl/6NNIA (B6) mice. Astrocytes and microglia were visualized using immunocytochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that depression may be both a cause and consequence of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), and that anti-depressants could provide an alternative strategy to current AD therapies. Association of side effect and herbal-drug interaction with conventional anti-depressant and St. John's wort warrant(More)
Morphological alterations in microvasculature occur as a common finding in the brains of non-demented aged persons and patients with Alzheimer's disease. Quantifying the extent of this vascular pathology, however, has been complicated by systematic error (bias) associated with the applications of assumption- and model-based morphometric techniques to human(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia afflicting the elderly. In addition to the presence of cortical senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, AD is characterized at autopsy by extensive degeneration of brainstem locus coeruleus (LC) neurons that provide noradrenergic innervation to cortical neuropil, together with relative(More)
Microscopic findings in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) at autopsy include a wide cortical distribution of beta amyloid (Aβ)-containing plaques and diminished numbers of pyramidal neurons in CA1 of hippocampus and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH+) neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC). To better understand the neuropathology underlying cognitive decline in AD, we(More)
Previous investigations have showed that triptolide possessed potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. In the present study, we examined the protective effects of triptolide on the inflammatory response induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) both in vivo and in vitro. Intrahippocampal injection of LPS (4 microg) in rats(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the changes of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 expression in neurons and activation of brain astroglial cells, and the relationship between astrocytes and neurons in mice after a single intracerebroventricular (ICV) stereotaxic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). METHODS C57BL/6J mice of different ages were divided into a control(More)
Murine models that mimic the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have the potential to provide insight into the pathogenesis of the disease and lead to new strategies for the therapeutic management of afflicted patients. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), design-based stereology, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to assess the(More)
OBJECTIVE To observe the effect of chronic unpredicted sequence of mild stress on the expression of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A(PKA) and phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element binding protein (P-CREB) in hippocampus of rats and the antagonism of antidepressors (fluoxetine). METHODS Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly and equally(More)
The principal pathology of Alzheimer's disease includes neuronal extracellular deposition of amyloid-beta peptides and formation of senile plaques, which in turn induce neuroinflammation in the brain. Triptolide, a natural extract from the vine-like herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, has potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive efficacy. Therefore,(More)