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Previous studies have demonstrated that beta-defensins exhibit chemotactic activity by sharing the chemokine receptor CCR6 with the CC chemokine ligand CCL20/macrophage-inflammatory protein-3alpha (MIP-3alpha). Structural analysis of CCL20/MIP-3alpha revealed that most of the positively charged residues are concentrated at one area of its topological(More)
Mammals generate a diverse array of antimicrobial proteins, largely represented by defensins or cathelicidins. The direct in vitro microbicidal activity of antimicrobial proteins has long been considered an important innate immune defense, although the in vivo relevance has only very recently been established for certain defensins and cathelicidins.(More)
High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein is a nonhistone, DNA-binding protein that plays a critical role in regulating gene transcription. Recently, HMGB1 has also been shown to act as a late mediator of endotoxic shock and to exert a variety of proinflammatory, extracellular activities. Here, we report that HMGB1 simultaneously acts as a chemoattractant(More)
Mammalian antimicrobial proteins, such as defensins and cathelicidin, have stimulating effects on host leukocytes. Cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP), the orthologue of human cathelicidin/LL-37, is the sole identified murine cathelicidin. CRAMP has been shown to have both antimicrobial and angiogenic activities. However, whether CRAMP, like(More)
The recruitment and activation of antigen-presenting cells are critical early steps in mounting an immune response. Many microbial components and endogenous mediators participate in this process. Recent studies have identified a group of structurally diverse multifunctional host proteins that are rapidly released following pathogen challenge and/or cell(More)
Human defensins form a family of small, cationic, and Cys-rich antimicrobial proteins that play important roles in innate immunity against invading microbes. They also function as effective immune modulators in adaptive immunity by selectively chemoattracting T lymphocytes and immature dendritic cells. On the basis of sequence homology and the connectivity(More)
Human macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha (MIP-3alpha; CCL20) is a CC-type chemokine that binds to and activates CC chemokine receptor-6 (CCR6). Although MIP-3alpha does not share the binding site of CCR6 with any other chemokine, human beta-defensin-1 and -2, small cationic antimicrobial peptides, have also been found to bind to and activate CCR6.(More)
Mammalian defensins are small, cationic, antimicrobial peptides encoded by the host that are considered to be important antibiotic-like effectors of innate immunity. By using chemokine receptors on dendritic cells and T cells, defensins might also contribute to the regulation of host adaptive immunity against microbial invasion. Defensins have considerable(More)
Autoantibodies to histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HisRS) or to alanyl-, asparaginyl-, glycyl-, isoleucyl-, or threonyl-tRNA synthetase occur in approximately 25% of patients with polymyositis or dermatomyositis. We tested the ability of several aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases to induce leukocyte migration. HisRS induced CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes, interleukin(More)
OBJECTIVE Pertussis toxin (PT) has the capacity to activate dendritic cells (DCs) for the augmentation of cell-mediated immune responses. To investigate the mechanism(s) by which PT activates DCs, we investigated the effects of PT and its B-oligomer (PTB) on the maturation of human and mouse DCs and determined whether PT could act as a pathogen-associated(More)