De-Maw M Chuang

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Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a key role in homeostasis of protein acetylation in histones and other proteins and in regulating fundamental cellular activities such as transcription. A wide range of brain disorders are associated with imbalances in protein acetylation levels and transcriptional dysfunctions. Treatment with various HDAC inhibitors can(More)
Growing evidence from in vitro studies supports that valproic acid (VPA), an anti-convulsant and mood-stabilizing drug, has neuroprotective effects. The present study investigated whether VPA reduces brain damage and improves functional outcome in a transient focal cerebral ischemia model of rats. Subcutaneous injection of VPA (300 mg/kg) immediately after(More)
As our understanding of the underlying defects in fragile X syndrome (FXS) increases so does the potential for development of treatments aimed at modulating the defects and ameliorating the constellation of symptoms seen in patients. Symptoms of FXS include cognitive disability, hyperactivity, autistic behaviour, seizures and learning deficits. Lithium is a(More)
Two primary drugs used to treat bipolar mood disorder are lithium and valproate. Emerging evidence supports the notion that both mood stabilizers have neuroprotective effects. In primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells and cortical neurons, lithium and valproate robustly and potently protect against glutamate-induced, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)(More)
Mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of lithium for bipolar mood disorder remain poorly understood. Recent studies demonstrate that lithium has neuroprotective actions against a variety of insults in vitro and in vivo. This study was undertaken to investigate the role of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/TrkB signaling pathway in(More)
Emerging evidence suggests that alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn), which is traditionally thought to have a pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases, can have neuroprotective effects. This study aimed to investigate whether endogenous alpha-syn in neurons can be induced by valproic acid (VPA), a mood-stabilizer, anticonvulsant and histone deacetylase(More)
The pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia involves multiple mechanisms including neuroinflammation mediated by activated microglia and infiltrating macrophages/monocytes. The present study employed a rat permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) model to study effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition on ischemia-induced brain infarction,(More)
This study examines forms of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the basolateral amygdala in vitro and demonstrates that a brief high frequency stimulus (HFS) train can induce a switch in the direction of the enduring change in synaptic strength induced by subsequent low-frequency stimulation (LFS). LFS (1 Hz, 15 min) of the external capsule (EC)(More)
Emerging evidence suggests that the mood stabilizers lithium and valproate (VPA) have broad neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties, and that these occur via inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively. Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by impaired(More)
Lithium has emerged as a neuroprotective agent efficacious in preventing apoptosis-dependent cellular death. Lithium neuroprotection is provided through multiple, intersecting mechanisms, although how lithium interacts with these mechanisms is still under investigation. Lithium increases cell survival by inducing brain-derived neurotrophic factor and(More)