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The neuropeptide ␣-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (␣-MSH) is a powerful suppressor of inflammation mediated by macrophages, which express at least two receptors, melanocortin 1 and 3 receptors (MC1r and MC3r) that bind ␣-MSH. Albeit, the anti-inflammatory activity of ␣-MSH has been well documented in macrophages, the mechanisms of ␣-MSH activity in(More)
The neural retina of mammals consists of light sensitive photoreceptors and connecting neural cells that receive and send visual signal to the brain. Dietary caloric restriction (CR) is the only experimental intervention that can reliably retard the age-related degeneration of the retina in a normal mammalian model. Here, we studied the effect of CR on(More)
PURPOSE To isolate and characterize cultured myoepithelial cells (MECs) from rat lacrimal gland and determine which purinergic receptor subtypes are present and functional in MECs. METHODS Rat lacrimal glands were subjected to collagenase digestion, and MECs were grown. RT-PCR was performed for the purinergic receptors P2X(7), P2Y(1), P2Y(11), and P2Y(13)(More)
PURPOSE To determine the order and components of the signaling pathway utilized by epidermal growth factor (EGF) to stimulate conjunctival goblet cell proliferation. METHODS Goblet cells from rat bulbar and forniceal conjunctiva and human bulbar conjunctiva were grown in organ culture. Goblet cells (GCs) were serum starved for 24 hours and preincubated(More)
PURPOSE The response of lens systems to oxidative stress is confusing. Antioxidative defense systems are not mobilized as expected, and unanticipated defenses appear important. Therefore, mouse lens cell lines conditioned to survive different peroxide stresses have been analyzed to determine their global changes in gene expression. METHODS The immortal(More)
The conjunctiva is a moist mucosal membrane that is constantly exposed to an array of potential pathogens and triggers of inflammation. The NACHT, leucine rich repeat (LRR), and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) is a Nod-like receptor that can sense pathogens or other triggers, and is highly expressed in wet mucosal membranes. NLRP3 is a member of(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of histamine and its receptors on goblet cell secretion. METHODS Cultured rat and human goblet cells were grown in RPMI 1640. Goblet cell secretion of high molecular weight glycoconjugate was measured by an enzyme-linked lectin assay. Cultured rat goblet cells were homogenized and either RNA(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine the Ca(2+)-dependent cellular signaling pathways used by histamine to stimulate conjunctival goblet cell secretion. METHODS Cultured rat goblet cells were grown in RPMI 1640. Goblet cell secretion of high molecular weight glycoconjugates was measured by an enzyme-linked lectin assay. Intracellular(More)
Resolution of inflammation is an active process mediated by pro-resolution lipid mediators. As resolvin (Rv) D1 is produced in the cornea, pro-resolution mediators could be effective in regulating inflammatory responses to histamine in allergic conjunctivitis. Two key mediators of resolution are the D-series resolvins RvD1 or aspirin-triggered RvD1(More)
PURPOSE To determine the intracellular signaling pathways that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) uses to stimulate high molecular weight glycoconjugate secretion from cultured rat conjunctival goblet cells. METHODS Goblet cells from rat bulbar and forniceal conjunctiva were grown in organ culture. Presence and localization of VIP receptors (VPAC1 and 2)(More)