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The C. elegans lag-2 gene is required for several cell-cell interactions that rely on the receptors GLP-1 and LIN-12. In this paper, we report that lag-2 encodes a putative membrane protein with sequence similarity to Drosophila Delta, a proposed ligand for the Notch receptor. Furthermore, we show that the lag-2 promoter drives expression of a reporter(More)
In wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans, the gonad is a complex epithelial tube that consists of long arms composed predominantly of germline tissue as well as somatic structures specialized for particular reproductive functions. In gon-1 mutants, the adult gonad is severely disorganized with essentially no arm extension and no recognizable somatic structure.(More)
Ziconotide is a selective, potent and reversible blocker of neuronal N-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCCs). Morphine is an agonist of mu-opioid receptors and inhibits N-type VSCC channels via a G-protein coupling mechanism. Both agents are antinociceptive when they are administered intrathecally (spinally). The present study investigated the(More)
Osmotic permeability characteristics and the effects of cryoprotectants are important determinants of recovery and function of spermatozoa after cryopreservation. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the osmotic permeability parameters of human spermatozoa in the presence of cryoprotectants. A series of experiments was done to: 1) validate the(More)
Use of a cryoprotective agent is indispensable to prevent injury to human spermatozoa during the cryopreservation process. However, addition of cryoprotective agents to spermatozoa before cooling and their removal after warming may create severe osmotic stress for the cells, resulting in injury. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that(More)
Hyperosmotic stress, which cells experience during the freezing process, and its release during the warming process are both related to cryoinjury. To define optimal cooling or warming rates and prevent osmotic injury to human sperm, information is required regarding the osmotic tolerance of the cells as a function of 1) time, 2) temperature, 3) type of(More)
Biological metabolism in living cells dramatically diminishes at low temperatures, a fact that permits the long-term preservation of living cells and tissues for either scientific research or many medical and industrial applications (e.g., blood transfusion, bone marrow transplantation, artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, food storage).(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the hypotheses that there is a two-factor aspect of cellular damage during cryopreservation that occurs in human sperm (osmotic effects versus intracellular ice formation) and that there is a cooling rate by warming rate interaction related to this damage. DESIGN Ejaculates from healthy men were cooled at 0.1, 1.0, 10, 175, or 800(More)
Ziconotide (SNX-111), a selective blocker of neuronal N-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels, is antinociceptive when it is administered intrathecally. It is currently under clinical investigation for the treatment of malignant and non-malignant pain syndromes. The present study was undertaken to compare and contrast antinociceptive properties of(More)
BACKGROUND T-cell infiltration in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast tumours has been associated with longer survival. To investigate this association and the potential of tumour T-cell infiltration as a prognostic and predictive marker, we have conducted the largest study of T cells in breast cancer to date. PATIENTS AND METHODS Four studies(More)