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The choroid is the main source of oxygen to the retina. In contrast to the adult, the absence of autoregulation of choroidal blood flow in the newborn leads to hyperoxygenation of the retina. In the immature retina which contains relatively low levels of antioxidants this hyperoxygenation favors peroxidation including the generation of biologically active(More)
Microvascular degeneration is an important event in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), a model of retinopathy of prematurity. Because oxidant stress abundantly generates thromboxane A2 (TxA2), we tested whether TxA2 plays a role in retinal vasoobliteration of OIR and contributes to such vascular degeneration by direct endothelial cytotoxicity.(More)
Vascularization is essential for tissue development and in restoration of tissue integrity after an ischemic injury. In studies of vascularization, the focus has largely been placed on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), yet other factors may also orchestrate this process. Here we show that succinate accumulates in the hypoxic retina of rodents and,(More)
In order to understand the molecular basis of the elevated cerebral prostaglandin levels in the newborn, we compared the expression of the mRNAs and proteins of prostaglandin G/H synthases (PGHS), PGHS-1 and PGHS-2, in various regions of the brain and the microvasculature of newborn (1-2-day-old) and juvenile (4-7-week-old) pigs and also measured the(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Oxidant stress, especially in the premature, plays a major role in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathies mostly manifested in the periventricular region. We studied the vasomotor mode of actions of the peroxidation product 15-F(2t)-isoprostane (15-F(2t)-IsoP) (8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha)) on periventricular region(More)
We examined whether nitric oxide (NO) generated from neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) contributes to the reduced ability of the newborn to autoregulate retinal blood flow (RBF) and choroidal blood flow (ChBF) during acute rises in perfusion pressure. In newborn pigs (1-2 days old), RBF (measured by microsphere) is autoregulated over a narrow range of perfusion(More)
The role of nitric oxide (NO) as well as its interaction with prostaglandins (PG) in setting the limits of autoregulation of retinal blood flow (RBF) and choroidal blood flow (ChBF) were studied in newborn pigs (1-5 d old). Blood flows were measured by the microsphere technique. Low and high ocular perfusion pressures (OPP) were induced by inflating(More)
It has been postulated that intracellular binding sites for platelet-activating factor (PAF) contribute to proinflammatory responses to PAF. Isolated nuclei from porcine cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (PCECs) produced PAF-molecular species in response to H(2)O(2). Using FACS analysis, we demonstrated the expression of PAF receptors on cell and(More)
1. Negative inotropic effects of several beta-adrenoceptor (betaAR) antagonists on electrically-stimulated right atria, left atria, right ventricles and left ventricular papillary muscles from reserpine-treated rats were used as a measure of their inverse agonist activities. 2. Beta1AR antagonists acebutolol, atenolol and metoprolol, beta2AR antagonist(More)
Using a video-imaging technique, we characterized the effects of 8-isoprostaglandin F2 alpha (8-iso-PGF2 alpha) on retinal vasculature from piglets. 8-Iso-PGF2 alpha potently contracted (EC50 = 5.9 +/- 0.5 nM) retinal vessels. These effects were completely antagonized by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, the thromboxane synthase blocker CGS-12970,(More)