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A multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase PCR has been developed for the rapid detection and identification of eight medically important flaviviruses from laboratory-reared, virus-infected mosquito pools. The method used involves the gene-specific amplification of yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), St.(More)
Dengue virus is an arbovirus that replicates alternately in the mosquito vector and human host. We investigated sequences of dengue type 3 virus in naturally infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and in eight patients from the same outbreak and reported that the extent of sequence variation seen with the mosquitoes was generally lower than that seen with the(More)
Studies of the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), a potentially life-threatening disease, have revealed the importance of initial high levels of virus replication. However, the possible involvement of virus during the transition from fever to defervescence, a critical stage in determining the severity of disease, has not been appreciated. Using(More)
Noroviruses (NoVs) and sapoviruses (SaVs) of the family Caliciviridae are emerging enteric pathogens in humans and animals. Recent detection of genogroup II norovirus (GII NoV) RNA from swine raises public health concerns about zoonotic transmission of porcine NoVs to humans. However, few papers reported genotype distributions and epidemiological features(More)
Since no protective vaccine or specific treatments are available for dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), accurate diagnosis is critical for the early initiation of specific preventive health measures to curtail epidemic spread and reduce economic losses. Commonly used diagnosis methods for confirming dengue infection involve virus isolation,(More)
The use of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) serves as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of acute flaviviral infections, since IgM antibody titers are detectable early, peak at about 2 weeks postinfection, and subsequently decline to lower levels over the next few months. Traditionally, virus-infected(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies presented the quasispecies spectrum of the envelope region of dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3) from either clinical specimens or field-caught mosquitoes. However, the extent of sequence variation among full genomic sequences of DENV within infected individuals remains largely unknown. RESULTS Instead of arbitrarily choosing one(More)
UNLABELLED The NS2A protein of dengue virus (DENV) has eight predicted transmembrane segments (pTMSs; pTMS1 to pTMS8). NS2A has been shown to participate in RNA replication, virion assembly, and the host antiviral response. However, the role of the amino acid residues within the pTMS regions of NS2A during the virus life cycle is poorly understood. In the(More)
This study analyzed the spatio-temporal patterns of 4,587 (94% of the total) confirmed dengue cases in Kaohsiung and Fengshan Cities (a two-city area) that occurred in Taiwan from 2001 to 2003. The epidemic had two simultaneous distinct diffusion patterns. One was a contiguous pattern, mostly limited to 1 km from an initial cluster, reflecting that there(More)
patients. Two of these five had concurrent S. haematobium, compared to no cases in nonosteomyelitis patients; a Fisher exact test showed this difference to be significant (p < 0.02). These limited and preliminary data are consistent with the relationship between leprosy (caused by a mycobacterium related to the one causing Buruli ulcer, M. leprae) and(More)