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Image sensors capable of resolving the time-of-arrival (ToA) of individual photons with high resolution are needed in several applications, such as fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), optical rangefinding, and positron emission tomography. In FRET, for example, typical fluorescence lifetime is of the(More)
We have successfully demonstrated video-rate CMOS single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD)-based cameras for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) by applying innovative FLIM algorithms. We also review and compare several time-domain techniques and solid-state FLIM systems, and adapt the proposed algorithms for massive CMOS SPAD-based arrays and(More)
A compact real-time fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) system based on an array of low dark count 0.13microm CMOS single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) is demonstrated. Fast background-insensitive fluorescence lifetime determination is achieved by use of a recently proposed algorithm called 'Integration for Extraction Method' (IEM) [J. Opt.(More)
We describe a miniaturized, high-throughput, time-resolved fluorescence lifetime sensor implemented in a 0.13 m CMOS process, combining single photon detection, multiple channel timing and embedded pre-processing of fluorescence lifetime estimations on a single device. Detection is achieved using an array of single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) arranged(More)
A new, simple, high-speed, and hardware-only integration-based fluorescence-lifetime-sensing algorithm using a center-of-mass method (CMM) is proposed to implement lifetime calculations, and its signal-to-noise-ratio based on statistics theory is also deduced. Compared to the commonly used iterative least-squares method or the(More)
A new, simple, and hardware-only fluorescence-lifetime-imaging microscopy (FLIM) is proposed to implement on-chip lifetime extractions, and their signal-to-noise-ratio based on statistics theory is also deduced. The results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations, giving good agreement. Compared with the commonly used iterative least-squares method or the(More)
Fluorescence lifetime of dye molecules is a sensitive reporter on local microenvironment which is generally independent of fluorophores concentration and can be used as a means of discrimination between molecules with spectrally overlapping emission. It is therefore a potentially powerful multiplexed detection modality in biosensing but requires extremely(More)
A new integration based fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) called IEM has been proposed to implement lifetime extraction [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A25, 1190 (2008)]. A real-time hardware implementation of the IEM FLIM algorithm suitable for single photon avalanche diode arrays in nanometer-scale CMOS technology is now proposed. The problems of reduced(More)