Learn More
Image sensors capable of resolving the time-of-arrival (ToA) of individual pho-tons with high resolution are needed in several applications, such as fluores-cence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), optical rangefinding, and positron emission tomography. In FRET, for example, typical fluorescence lifetime is of the(More)
A compact real-time fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) system based on an array of low dark count 0.13microm CMOS single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) is demonstrated. Fast background-insensitive fluorescence lifetime determination is achieved by use of a recently proposed algorithm called 'Integration for Extraction Method' (IEM) [J. Opt.(More)
We have successfully demonstrated video-rate CMOS single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD)-based cameras for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) by applying innovative FLIM algorithms. We also review and compare several time-domain techniques and solid-state FLIM systems, and adapt the proposed algorithms for massive CMOS SPAD-based arrays and(More)
We describe a miniaturized, high-throughput, time-resolved fluorescence lifetime sensor implemented in a 0.13 m CMOS process, combining single photon detection, multiple channel timing and embedded pre-processing of fluorescence lifetime estimations on a single device. Detection is achieved using an array of single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) arranged(More)
A new, simple, high-speed, and hardware-only integration-based fluorescence-lifetime-sensing algorithm using a center-of-mass method (CMM) is proposed to implement lifetime calculations, and its signal-to-noise-ratio based on statistics theory is also deduced. Compared to the commonly used iterative least-squares method or the(More)
A new, simple, and hardware-only fluorescence-lifetime-imaging microscopy (FLIM) is proposed to implement on-chip lifetime extractions, and their signal-to-noise-ratio based on statistics theory is also deduced. The results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations, giving good agreement. Compared with the commonly used iterative least-squares method or the(More)
Fluorescence lifetime of dye molecules is a sensitive reporter on local microenvironment which is generally independent of fluorophores concentration and can be used as a means of discrimination between molecules with spectrally overlapping emission. It is therefore a potentially powerful multiplexed detection modality in biosensing but requires extremely(More)
A new integration based fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) called IEM has been proposed to implement lifetime extraction [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A25, 1190 (2008)]. A real-time hardware implementation of the IEM FLIM algorithm suitable for single photon avalanche diode arrays in nanometer-scale CMOS technology is now proposed. The problems of reduced(More)