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A small short muscle frequently acts across a joint in parallel with a vastly larger and longer muscle; therefore it should play a minimal role in the mechanical control of that joint. This study provides evidence suggesting that the small member of such a "parallel muscle combination" (PMC) may serve an important sensory feedback role. The spindle(More)
A small short muscle acting across a joint in parallel with vastly larger and longer muscles is clearly unable to play more than a minimal mechanical role in such a "parallel muscle combination" (PMC). This research investigates a feed back role for the small muscles of PMCs, proposing a significantly higher muscle spindle concentration therein to be(More)
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic disorder associated with disruption of prefrontal cortex (PFC) development and executive dysfunction. To date, however, there is little evidence directly linking these two sequelae of PKU. We utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate prefrontal functioning in six individuals with early-treated PKU(More)
The concept of parallel muscle combinations, in which spindle density is significantly higher in small muscles compared to their larger counterparts in large-small muscle combinations acting across a joint, is supported by the results of this study regardless of the joint. Analysis of the canine data as well as previously published guinea pig forelimb and(More)
Previous research has documented white matter abnormalities in the brains of individuals with early-treated phenylketonuria (ETPKU). The majority of these past studies have relied on a region-based approach which focused on a limited number of spatially-defined regions within the brain. In the present study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in(More)
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic disorder characterised by an inability to metabolise phenylalanine. Several studies have reported that the Corpus Callosum (CC) is one of the most severely affected structures with respect to volume loss in early treated PKU patients. In this work, we aim to detect the abnormalities of the CC in PKU from both global and(More)
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a rare genetic condition characterized by an absence or mutation of the PAH enzyme, which is necessary for the metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine into tyrosine. Recently, sapropterin dihydrochloride, a synthetic form of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), has been introduced as a supplemental treatment to dietary phe control for PKU.(More)
Withdrawal from hypnotics can produce a variety of problems, especially sleep difficulties, some of which may arise from the multiple actions of most hypnotics, thus producing a range of rebound effects. This study examined whether switching patients to a hypnotic with a narrower range of action and of a different class would reduce these problems. One(More)
Leigh syndrome is a mitochondrial disease caused by mutations in different genes, including ATP6A for which no known therapy is available. We report a case of adult-onset Leigh syndrome with response to immunotherapy. A twenty year-old woman with baseline learning difficulties was admitted with progressive behavioral changes, diplopia, headaches, bladder(More)
The most widely-reported neurologic finding in individuals with early-treated phenylketonuria (PKU) is abnormality in the white matter of the brain. In contrast, much less is known regarding the impact of PKU on cortical gray matter (GM) structures. Presently, we applied advanced morphometric methods to the analysis of high-resolution structural MRI images(More)